Adaptogen Extracts

Herbal adaptogens concentrating active compounds while maintaining complex synergistic co-factors – supporting Adrenal/ HPA regulation, Long Term Potentiation, AMPK activation, neurogenesis, catecholamine production, tissue regeneration, and many regulatory functions.


Adaptogen Extracts - Bacopa Monnieri

Bacopa monnieri

Overview:
Studies indicate that Bacopa monnieri has neuroprotective, nootropic and adaptogenic effects. Research shows that it can improve memory formation and recall.

Scientific Name:
Bacopa monnieri

Mechanisms:

  • Bacosides are the active ingredients in Bacopa monnieri[1]
  • Inhibits acetylcholinesterase, activates choline acetyltransferase – increased levels of acetylcholine[1]
  • Increases neurite branching and proliferation – improves synaptic communication and memory[1]
  • Modulates the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems – mood enhancer[3]
  • Modulates the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and oxidative damage from metals in the brain – protective against neurodegeneration[4]
  • Anxiolytic and analgesic effects[5,6]
  • Reduce the levels of the stress marker HSP70 in the brain – adaptogenic effect[7]
  • Synergistic with curcumin and EGCG[8]
References

[1] Aguiar S, Borowski T (2013). Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri. Rejuvenation Res, 16(4):313-26. doi: 10.1089/rej.2013.1431
[2] Sivaramakrishna, C, et al (2005). Triterpenoid glycosides from Bacopa monnieri. Phytochemistry, 66: 2719–2728. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.09.016
[3] Rauf K, et al (2012). Effect of acute and sub-chronic use of Bacopa monnieri on dopamine and serotonin turnover in mice whole brain. AJPP. 2012;6:2767–2774. doi: 10.5897/AJPP12.244
[4] Chowdhuri DK, et al (2002). Antistress effects of bacosides of Bacopa monnieri: modulation of Hsp70 expression, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome P450 activity in rat brain. Phytother Res, 16(7):639-45. doi: 10.1002/ptr.1023
[5] Chatterjee M, et al (2010). Comparative evaluation of Bacopa monniera and Panax quniquefolium in experimental anxiety and depressive models in mice. Indian J Exp Biol, 48(3):306-13. PMID: 21046986
[6] Bhaskar M, Jagtap AG (2011). Exploring the possible mechanisms of action behind the antinociceptive activity of Bacopa monniera. Int J Ayurveda Res, 2(1):2-7. doi: 10.4103/0974-7788.83173
[7] Anbarasi K, et al (2006). Cigarette smoking induces heat shock protein 70 kDa expression and apoptosis in rat brain: Modulation by bacoside A. Neuroscience, 138(4):1127-35. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.11.029
[8] Velmurugan K, et al (2009). Synergistic induction of heme oxygenase-1 by the components of the antioxidant supplement Protandim. Free Radic Biol Med, 46(3):430-40. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.10.050

Adaptogen Extracts - Mucuna Pruriens

Mucuna pruriens

Overview:
Mucuna pruriens is a bean with neuroprotective and adaptogenic effects. Mucuna pruriens is a mood enhancer and increases focus and motivation.

Scientific Name:
Mucuna pruriens, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine

Mechanisms:

  • L-DOPA is its main active substance[1]
  • Regulates the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline and serotonin in the brain[2]
  • Synergistic with P5P in the production of dopamine[3]
  • Anxiolytic and antidepressant effects[4]
  • Reduces the production of cortisol in response to stress[5]
  • Decreases the levels of free radicals, reactive oxygen species, neurotoxins and heavy metal poisoning[6]
  • Increases the production of growth hormone and melanin[7]
References

[1] Pulikkalpura H, et al (2015). Levodopa in Mucuna pruriens and its degradation. Sci Rep, 5:11078. doi: 10.1038/srep11078
[2] Misu Y, et al (1996). Neurobiology of L-DOPAergic systems. Prog Neurobiol, 49(5):415-54. doi: 10.1016/0301-0082(96)00025-1
[3] Das Gupta V, Gupta A (1980). Effect of pyridoxal 5-phosphate on carbidopa and decarboxylation of levodopa. J Pharm Sci, 69(10):1145-8. doi: 10.1002/jps.2600691005
[4] Rana DG, Galani VJ (2014). Dopamine mediated antidepressant effect of Mucuna pruriens seeds in various experimental models of depression. Ayu, 35(1):90-7. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.141949
[5] Shukla KK, et al (2007). Mucuna pruriens Reduces Stress and Improves the Quality of Semen in Infertile Men. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 7(1):137-44. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nem171
[6] Lampariello LR, et al (2012). The Magic Velvet Bean of Mucuna pruriens. J Tradit Complement Med, 2(4):331-9. PMID: 24716148
[7] Chihara K, et al (1986). L-dopa stimulates release of hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 62(3):466-73. doi: 10.1210/jcem-62-3-466

Adaptogen Extracts - Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo biloba

Overview:
Ginkgo biloba is a plant with neuroprotective, nootropic and adaptogenic effects. Ginkgo biloba can delay aging, improving memory and attention.

Scientific Name:
Ginkgo biloba

Mechanisms:

      • Contains flavonoid glycosides such as quercetin, and terpene lactones such as ginkgolides and bilobalides – main bioactive substances[1]
      • Increases dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline levels[2,3]
      • Modulates histaminergic neurotransmission improving learning and memory[4]
      • Increases BDNF levels and promotes neurogenesis and neuronal survival[5]
      • Improves cerebral blood flow by inhibiting the platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor[6]
      • Delays cognitive decline and improves short term memory and free recall[7]
      • Reduces stress and anxiety and decreases corticosterone levels – adaptogenic effect[8]
      • Has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and preserves mitochondrial function – anti-aging effect[9]
References

[1] van Beek TA (2002). Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts. J Chromatogr A, 16;967(1):21-55. doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(02)00172-3
[2] Ponto LL, Schultz SK (2003). Ginkgo biloba extract: review of CNS effects. Ann Clin Psychiatry, 15(2):109-19. doi: 10.1023/A:1024688326023
[3] Ahlemeyer B, Krieglstein J (2003). Neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract. Cell Mol Life Sci, 60(9):1779-92. doi: 10.1007/s00018-003-3080-1
[4] Yamamoto Y, et al (2007). Ginkgo biloba extract improves spatial memory in rats mainly but not exclusively via a histaminergic mechanism. Brain Res, 1129(1):161-5. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2006.08.102
[5] Tchantchou F, et al (2009). Stimulation of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis by bilobalide and quercetin via common final pathway in hippocampal neurons. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;18(4):787-98. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2009-1189
[6] Liao HJ, et al (2011). Two new ginkgolides from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Planta Med, 77(16):1818-21. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1271153
[7] Kanowski S, et al (1996). Proof of efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia. Pharmacopsychiatry, 29(2):47-56. doi: 10.1016/S0944-7113(97)80021-9
[8] Rapin JR, et al (1994). Demonstration of the “anti-stress” activity of an extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) using a discrimination learning task. Gen Pharmacol, 25(5):1009-16. doi: 10.1016/0306-3623(94)90111-2
[9] Eckert A, et al (2003). Effects of EGb 761 Ginkgo biloba extract on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Pharmacopsychiatry, 36 Suppl 1:S15-23. doi: 10.1055/s-2003-40449

Adaptogen Extracts - Coleus Forskohlin

Coleus forskohlin

Overview:
Forskolin is a labdane diterpene and the main bioactive compound in Coleus forskohlii, having nootropic and adaptogenic effects. Forskolin improves learning, memory and mental stamina.

Scientific Name:
Forskolin from Coleus Forskohlii

Mechanisms:

      • Forskolin increases intracellular levels of cAMP through adenylate cyclase activation – increased responsiveness to extracellular stimuli[1]
      • Improves stress response by improving cell communication in the HPA axis – adaptogenic effect[2]
      • Synergistic with artichoke extract in increasing cAMP levels[1]
      • Inhibits acetylcholinesterase – increased acetylcholine levels[3]
      • Decreases fatigue[4]
      • Anti-inflammatory effects[5]
References

[1] Litosch I, Hudson TH, Mills I, Li SY, Fain JN (1982). Forskolin as an activator of cyclic AMP accumulation and lipolysis in rat adipocytes. Mol Pharmacol, 22(1):109-15. PMID: 6289066
[2] Kumari M, Cover PO, Poyser RH, Buckingham JC (1997). Stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in the rat by three selective type-4 phosphodiesterase inhibitors: in vitro and in vivo studies. Br J Pharmacol, 121(3):459-68. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0701158
[3] Yang QR, Wu HZ, Wang XM, Zou GA, Liu YW (2006). Three new diterpenoids from Coleus forskohlii Briq. J Asian Nat Prod Res, 8(4):355-60. doi: 10.1080/10286020500172236
[4] Henderson S, et al (2005). Effects of coleus forskohlii supplementation on body composition and hematological profiles in mildly overweight women. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2:54-62. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-2-2-54
[5] Menon DB, Latha K (2011). Phytochemical Screening and In vitro Anti-inflammatory Activity of the Stem of Coleus forskohlii. 3(23):75-79. doi: 10.5530/pj.2011.23.11

Adaptogen Extracts - Artichoke Extract

Artichoke Extract

Overview:
Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) is a plant that contains cynarin, having nootropic effects. Cynarin can significantly improve memory and executive function.

Scientific Name:
Cynara cardunculus

Mechanisms:

      • Artichoke extract contains polyphenols with antioxidant action and cynarin, its main biologically active compound[1]
      • Increases long-term synaptic potentiation – improved memory[2]
      • Enhances working memory, short-term memory, memory consolidation, and memory recall[2]
      • Synergistic with forskolin in increasing cAMP levels – inhibits phosphodiesterase-4[3]
      • Enhances logic, mathematical, and practical reasoning[4]
References

[1] Li H, et al (2004). Flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) up-regulate endothelial-type nitric-oxide synthase gene expression in human endothelial cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 310(3):926-32. doi: 10.1124/jpet.104.066639
[2] Barad M, et al (1998). Rolipram, a type IV-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, facilitates the establishment of long-lasting long-term potentiation and improves memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95(25):15020-5. PMID: 9844008
[3] Yu MC, et al (2010). Luteolin, a non-selective competitive inhibitor of phosphodiesterases 1-5, displaced [3H]-rolipram from high-affinity rolipram binding sites and reversed xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia. Eur J Pharmacol, 627(1-3):269-75. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.10.031
[4] Reneerkens OA, et al (2009). Selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors: a promising target for cognition enhancement. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 202(1-3):419-43. doi: 10.1007/s00213-008-1273-x

Adaptogen Extracts - Rhodiola Rosea

Rhodiola rosea

Overview:
Rhodiola rosea is a flowering plant with nootropic and adaptogenic effects. Its biologically active compounds can improve memory and focus.

Scientific Name:
Rhodiola rosea

      • Rosavins and salidrosides are its main biologically active compounds[1]
      • Inhibits monoamine oxidase[2]
      • Increases the levels of dopamine, noradrenalin, adrenalin, serotonin, and melatonin[2]
      • Regulates the opioid β-endorphin – improves mood[3]
      • Decreases fatigue, improves motivation and concentration[3]
      • Promotes longevity – neuroprotective against toxins and oxidative stress; increases the production of antioxidant enzymes[4]
      • Modulates neuropeptide Y activity, increasing HSP72 levels – anti-stress effects[5]
      • Enhances neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration – memory enhancement[6 7]
References

[1] Panossian A, et al (2010). Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy. Phytomedicine, 17(7):481-93. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.02.002
[2] van Diermen D, et al (2009). Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots. J Ethnopharmacol, 122(2):397-401. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.01.007
[3] Kelly GS (2001). Rhodiola rosea: a possible plant adaptogen. Altern Med Rev, 6(3):293-302. PMID: 11410073
[4] Qu ZQ, et al (2009). Pretreatment with Rhodiola rosea extract reduces cognitive impairment induced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in rats: implication of anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. Biomed Environ Sci, 22(4):318-26. doi: 10.1016/S0895-3988(09)60062-3
[5] Panossian A, et al (2012). Adaptogens stimulate neuropeptide y and hsp72 expression and release in neuroglia cells. Front Neurosci, 6:6. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2012.00006
[6] Qu ZQ, et al (2012). Protective effects of a Rhodiola crenulata extract and salidroside on hippocampal neurogenesis against streptozotocin-induced neural injury in the rat. PLoS One, 7(1):e29641. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029641
[7] Sheng QS, et al (2013). Salidroside promotes peripheral nerve regeneration following crush injury to the sciatic nerve in rats. Neuroreport, 24(5):217-23. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e32835eb867

Adaptogen Extracts - Lion’s Mane

Lion’s Mane

Overview:
Lion’s Mane is a mushroom with neuroprotective and nootropic effects. Lion’s Mane can improve memory and reasoning.

Scientific Name:
Hericium erinaceus

Mechanisms:

      • Increases NGF levels in the brain – enhanced neuronal growth, regeneration and synaptic plasticity[1]
      • Improves myelination – enhanced neuronal communication and nerve regeneration[2]
      • Increases long-term synaptic potentiation – improved memory[3,4]
      • Decreases glutamatergic transmission – decreased neuronal excitability and excitotoxicity[3,4]
      • Protects neurons from endoplasmic reticulum stress[3,4]
      • Antidepressant and anxiolytic[5]
      • Anti-inflammatory effects[6]
References

[1] Lai PL, et al (2013). Neurotrophic properties of the Lion’s mane medicinal mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Malaysia. Int J Med Mushrooms, 15(6):539-54. doi: 10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v15.i6.30
[2] Kolotushkina EV, et al (2003). The influence of Hericium erinaceus extract on myelination process in vitro. Fiziol Zh, 49(1):38-45. PMID: 12675022
[3] Phan CW, et al (2015). Therapeutic potential of culinary-medicinal mushrooms for the management of neurodegenerative diseases: diversity, metabolite, and mechanism. Crit Rev Biotechnol, 35(3):355-68. doi: 10.3109/07388551.2014.887649
[4] Sabaratnam V, et al (2013). Neuronal health – can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help? J Tradit Complement Med, 3(1):62-8. doi: 10.4103/2225-4110.106549
[5] Nagano M, et al (2010). Reduction of depression and anxiety by 4 weeks Hericium erinaceus intake. Biomed Res, 31(4):231-7. doi: 10.2220/biomedres.31.231
[6] Geng Y, et al (2014). Anti-inflammatory activity of mycelial extracts from medicinal mushrooms. Int J Med Mushrooms, 16(4):319-25. doi: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v16.i4.20

Adaptogen Extracts - Gynostemma

Gynostemma

Overview:
Gynostemma is an herb with neuroprotective and adaptogenic effects. Gynostemma can improve memory

Scientific Name:
Gynostemma pentaphyllum

Mechanisms:

      • Increases the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione and other anti-oxidants – neuroprotective effect[1]
      • Maintains optimal homeostasis and improves resistance to stress – adaptogenic effect[2]
      • Improves memory as a consequence of antioxidant mechanisms[3]
      • Anti-inflammatory effects through NF-kB inhibition
      • Anti-aging effect
References

[1] Zhang GL, et al (2011). Gypenosides improve cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats by suppressing oxidative stress and astrocytic activation. Behav Pharmacol, 22(7):633-44. doi: 10.1097/FBP.0b013e32834afef9
[2] Zhao TT, et al (2015). Ameliorating effects of gypenosides on chronic stress-induced anxiety disorders in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med, 15:323. doi: 10.1186/s12906-015-0856-4
[3] Schild L, et al (2009). Protection of hippocampal slices against hypoxia/hypoglycemia injury by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract. Phytomedicine, 16(8):734-43. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2009.03.006
[4] Aktan F, et al (2003). Gypenosides derived from Gynostemma pentaphyllum suppress NO synthesis in murine macrophages by inhibiting iNOS enzymatic activity and attenuating NF-kappaB-mediated iNOS protein expression. Nitric Oxide, 8(4):235-42. doi: 10.1016/S1089-8603(03)00032-6