Neuro-Minerals

Synergist compounds that support nutrient transport and utilization, cytokine and eicosanoid modulation, neurotrophin factors, redox reactions, cholesterol regulation, and much more..


Neuro-Minerals - Lithium Orotate

Lithium Orotate

Overview:
Lithium orotate is a salt of orotic acid and lithium with neuroprotective effects. Lithium orotate can improve mood and may help preserve cognitive function.

Scientific Name:
Lithium 1,2,3,6-Tetrahydro-2,6-dioxo-4-pyrimidinecarboxylate

Mechanisms:

  • Lithium orotate provides lithium to the body[1]
  • Lithium has antidepressant activity[2]
  • Neuroprotective effects through inhibition of neuronal damaging proteins[3]
  • Increases the elimination of harmful toxic metals from the brain[4]
  • May increase gray matter[5]
  • Analgesic effect – decreases migraines[6]
References

[1] Smith DF & Schou M (1979). Kidney function and lithium concentrations of rats given an injection of lithium orotate or lithium carbonate. J Pharm Pharmacol, ;31(3):161-3. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.1979.tb13461.x
[2] Oruch R, et al (2014). Lithium: a review of pharmacology, clinical uses, and toxicity. Eur J Pharmacol, 740:464-73. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.06.042
[3] Vo TM, et al (2015). Is lithium a neuroprotective agent? Ann Clin Psychiatry, 27(1):49-54
[4] Moore GJ, et al (2000). Lithium-induced increase in human brain grey matter. Lancet, 356(9237):1241-2. doi: 10.1007/s10571-008-9343-5
[5] Schettini G, et al (1992). Molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, a new cognition-enhancing drug, on behavioral and biochemical parameters in young and aged rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 43(1):139-51. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02793-8
[6] Oedegaard KJ, et al (2000). Are migraine and bipolar disorders comorbid phenomena?: findings from a pharmacoepidemiological study using the Norwegian Prescription Database. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 31(6):734-9. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0b013e318235f4e9

Neuro-Minerals - Magnesium Threonate

Magnesium Threonate

Overview:
Magnesium threonate is a salt of magnesium and L-Threonate with neuroprotective and nootropic effects. Magnesium threonate can significantly improve memory and learning.

Scientific Name:
Magnesium (2R,3S)-2,3,4-Trihydroxybutanate

Mechanisms:

  • L-Threonate significantly enhances the bioavailability of magnesium[1]
  • Magnesium inhibits the activation of NMDA receptors and blocks calcium channels, decreasing neuronal hyperexcitation and excititoxicity[2,3]
  • Magnesium can greatly improve both short and long-term memory and delay age-related memory impairment[4]
  • Can have anxiolytic and antidepressant effects and improve sleep quality[5,6]
  • Improves synaptic activity and plasticity[7]
  • Improves glucose metabolism and energy production[8]
  • May increase cerebrospinal fluid in the brain[9]
  • Decreases chronic neuropathic pain and reduces migraines[10]
References

[1] Slutsky I, et al (2010). Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium. Neuron. 2010 Jan 28;65(2):165-77. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.12.026
[2] Johnson JW and Ascher P. (1990). Voltage-dependent block by intracellular Mg2+ of N-methyl-D-aspartate-activated channels. Biophys J, 57(5):1085-90. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3495(90)82626-6
[3] Iseri LT & French JH (1984). Magnesium: nature’s physiologic calcium blocker. Am Heart J. 1984 Jul;108(1):188-93. doi: 10.1016/0002-8703(84)90572-6
[4] Billard JM (2006). Ageing, hippocampal synaptic activity and magnesium. Magnes Res, 19(3):199-215. doi: 10.1684/mrh.2006.0063
[5] Poleszak E, et al (2004). Antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity of magnesium in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 78(1):7-12. doi: 10.1055/s-2002-33195
[6] Held K, et al (2002). Oral Mg(2+) supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry, 35(4):135-43. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2004.01.006
[7] Slutsky I, et al (2004). Enhancement of synaptic plasticity through chronically reduced Ca2+ flux during uncorrelated activity. Neuron, 44(5):835-49. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2004.11.013
[8] Cinar V, et al (2008). The effect of magnesium supplementation on glucose and insulin levels of tae-kwan-do sportsmen and sedentary subjects. Pak J Pharm Sci, 21(3):237-40. PMID: 18614418
[9] Morris ME (1992). Brain and CSF magnesium concentrations during magnesium deficit in animals and humans: neurological symptoms. Magnes Res, 5(4):303-13. PMID: 1296767
[10] Köseoglu E, et al (2008). The effects of magnesium prophylaxis in migraine without aura. Magnes Res, 21(2):101-8. doi: 10.1684/mrh.2008.0132

Neuro-Minerals - Zinc Picolinate

Zinc Picolinate

Overview:
Zinc picolinate is an acid form of zinc with neuroprotective effects. Zinc picolinate helps improve memory and mood.

Scientific Name:
Zinc pyridine-2-carboxylate

Mechanisms:

    • Picolinate increases the absorption of the essential nutrient zinc[1]
    • Zinc is a potent antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory, and an immunity enhancer[2]
    • Is found in the cerebral cortex, pineal gland, and hippocampus and has a neuromodulatory function[3]
    • Zinc is as cofactor for many metalloproteins, namely the enzyme superoxide dismustase, an important endogenous antioxidant[4]
    • Activates neuronal potassium channels, inhibits NMDA glutamate receptors, and decreases glutamate release[5,6]
    • Increases serotonin uptake in some brain regions[7]
    • May increase the production of BDNF – neuronal growth and plasticity, improved spatial memory, and antidepressant effect[5,6]
    • Inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3β – antidepressant effect[8]
References

[1] Barrie SA, et al (1987). Comparative absorption of zinc picolinate, zinc citrate and zinc gluconate in humans. Agents Actions, 21(1-2):223-8. PMID: 3630857
[2] Chasapis CT, et al (2012). Zinc and human health: an update. Arch Toxicol, 86(4):521-34. doi: 10.1007/s00204-011-0775-1
[3] Popescu BF & Nichol H (2010). Mapping brain metals to evaluate therapies for neurodegenerative disease. CNS Neurosci Ther, 17(4):256-68. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-5949.2010.00149.x
[4] Oteiza PI (2012). Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis. Free Radic Biol Med, 53(9):1748-59. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.08.568
[5] Sensi SL, et al (2009). Zinc in the physiology and pathology of the CNS. Nat Rev Neurosci, 10(11):780-91. doi: 10.1038/nrn2734
[6] Sensi SL, et al (2011). The neurophysiology and pathology of brain zinc. J Neurosci, 31(45):16076-85. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3454-11.2011
[7] Levenson CW (2006). Zinc: the new antidepressant? Nutr Rev, 64(1):39-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2006.tb00171.x
[8] Ilouz R, et al (2002). Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta by bivalent zinc ions: insight into the insulin-mimetic action of zinc. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 295(1):102-6. doi: 10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00636-8