Anhydrous Caffeine

Overview:
Caffeine is a methylxanthine found in coffee beans, cocoa beans and in tea. Research shows that caffeine is a brain stimulant that increases alertness, wakefulness, attention, working memory, motor activity, and elevates mood. Caffeine is quickly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and is able to easily cross the blood-brain barrier.

Scientific Name:
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine

Mechanisms:

  • Caffeine is an adenosine receptor antagonist.[1]
  • Adenosine decreases the levels of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine. By blocking adenosine receptors, caffeine counters those effects and thereby increases the concentration of those neurotransmitters.[2]
  • Increases cortical activation in the brain.[1]
  • Increases cerebral metabolism.[1]
  • Decreases fatigue and increases mental performance.[3,4]
  • Enhances attention, vigilance and reaction time.[5,6]
  • Improves verbal memory and visuospatial reasoning.[7]
  • Enhances executive function.[8]
  • Improves mood.[9]
  • Increases physical endurance.[10]

More Info:



References

[1]Burnstock G. Introduction to purinergic signalling in the brain. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;986:1-12. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-4719-7-1.
[2]Fredholm BB. Adenosine, Adenosine Receptors and the Actions of Caffeine. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995;76(2):93-101. 10.1111/j.1600-0773.1995.tb00111.x.
[3]Davis JM, Zhao Z, Stock HS, Mehl KA, Buggy J, Hand GA. Central nervous system effects of caffeine and adenosine on fatigue. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;284(2):R399-404. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00386.2002.
[4]Maridakis V, O’Connor PJ, Tomporowski PD. Sensitivity to change in cognitive performance and mood measures of energy and fatigue in response to morning caffeine alone or in combination with carbohydrate.Int J Neurosci. 2009;119(8):1239-1258.
[5]Lanini J, Galduróz JCF, Pompéia S. Acute personalized habitual caffeine doses improve attention and have selective effects when considering the fractionation of executive functions. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2016;31(1):29-43. doi:10.1002/hup.2511.
[6]Einöther SJL, Giesbrecht T. Caffeine as an attention enhancer: reviewing existing assumptions. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013;225(2):251-274. doi:10.1007/s00213-012-2917-4.
[7]Jarvis MJ. Does caffeine intake enhance absolute levels of cognitive performance? Psychopharmacology (Berl).1993;110(1-2):45-52.
[8]Soar K, Chapman E, Lavan N, Jansari AS, Turner JJD. Investigating the effects of caffeine on executive functions using traditional Stroop and a new ecologically-valid virtual reality task, the Jansari assessment of Executive Functions (JEF(©)). Appetite. 2016;105:156-163. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2016.05.021.
[9]Dodd FL, Kennedy DO, Riby LM, Haskell-Ramsay CF. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of caffeine and L-theanine both alone and in combination on cerebral blood flow, cognition and mood. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2015;232(14):2563-2576. doi:10.1007/s00213-015-3895-0.
[10]Plaskett CJ, Cafarelli E. Caffeine increases endurance and attenuates force sensation during submaximal isometric contractions. J Appl Physiol. 2001;91(4):1535-1544. doi:10.1152/jappl.2001.91.4.1535.