Collective Insights Blog

What Is The Citric Acid Cycle?

What Is The Citric Acid Cycle?

The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, is a circular loop rotating through eight organic acid intermediates (e.g., citrate, malate, oxaloacetate). This cycle plays a critical role in moving cell energy production forward, because it is the first pathway of the final stage of energy extraction from nutrients, in which carbon units are fully oxidized. The intermediate products formed in this cycle are also used to build molecules including proteins, DNA, and RNA.

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What Is Fatty Acid Oxidation? How Cells Use Fats to Make Energy (ATP)

What Is Fatty Acid Oxidation? How Cells Use Fats to Make Energy (ATP)

Fatty acids are an important fuel for the generation of cell energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Fatty acid oxidation, also known as beta-oxidation, is the metabolic pathway of fatty acid breakdown for energy production. Fatty acids are the primary source of energy for the heart (i.e., the cardiac muscle) and skeletal muscle during rest or moderate physical activity.

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Your Mental Energy Makes All the Difference

Your Mental Energy Makes All the Difference

It’s a commonly accepted truth that how well you do a thing will be a direct result of the amount of effort you are willing to put into doing the thing. Whether it’s work or a workout ... a conversation with someone or time alone on your computer … meditation or watching a movie ... You will only get out what you are willing to put in. And the thing you need to invest, to get the most out of anything you do, is mental effort. 

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Report on Qualia Energy Survey

Report on Qualia Energy Survey

In April-May 2019, an unflavored and unsweetened 5-day sample of Qualia Nootropic Energy was sent to members of our beta tester community. Here's how the data stacked up.

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 How is NAD+ Made? Preiss-Handler Pathway

How is NAD+ Made? Preiss-Handler Pathway

In 1958, Jack Preiss and Philip Handler published a scientific paper describing how NAD+ was made from niacin in three steps.(1) This pathway was later named the Preiss-Handler pathway after the co-discoverers. It describes the enzyme steps needed to convert niacin into the NAD+ molecule.

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How is NAD+ Made? Salvage Pathway

How is NAD+ Made? Salvage Pathway

The salvage pathway is used to produce NAD+ from nicotinamide molecules. Whether the source of the nicotinamide is vitamin B3 (as niacinamide), newer nicotinamides (e.g., nicotinamide riboside [NR], nicotinamide mononucleotide [NMN]), or molecules in food that get broken down during digestion into nicotinamide, the salvage pathway turns them into NAD+ in our tissues.

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Nootropics for Energy: How Athletes Use Smart Drugs as Ergogenics

Nootropics for Energy: How Athletes Use Smart Drugs as Ergogenics

In our last article, Nootropics for Athletes, we discussed several ergogenics (a category of supplements that enhance physical performance, stamina, or recovery) and how they can also be used to optimize brain energy and mental performance. Many of those substances, such as creatine, were well-researched because of their effects on the body. The same is true for numerous nootropic supplements, which were designed to optimize mental performance.

In this article we will cover some well-studied nootropics that also have physical enhancing effects. 

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How is NAD+ Made? De Novo Synthesis

How is NAD+ Made? De Novo Synthesis

Most organisms have several alternatives for producing the NAD+ molecule. In humans, there are three major NAD+ biosynthesis pathways: the De Novo Pathway, starting from the essential amino acid L-tryptophan; the Preiss-Handler pathway, using niacin (nicotinic acid); and the Salvage Pathway from niacinamide (nicotinamide). In this article, we’ll be covering the De Novo Pathway.

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Mitochondria: Exploring 5 Lifestyle Habits to Benefit Cell Health

Mitochondria: Exploring 5 Lifestyle Habits to Benefit Cell Health

Any way we can boost mitochondria helps us to increase the longevity of our cells and support energy production. In this article, we explore lifestyle habits that improve mitochondrial health and support healthy aging.

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Mitochondria Health: An Exploration of Temperature and Light Therapy

Mitochondria Health: An Exploration of Temperature and Light Therapy

Any way we can boost mitochondria helps us to increase the longevity of our cells and support energy production. Here we explore temperature and light therapy to improve mitochondrial health and support healthy aging.

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