American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) Root Extract

COMMON NAME

American Ginseng

TOP BENEFITS OF AMERICAN GINSENG

Supports brain health and cognitive performance*

Supports adaptation to stress *

Supports mood*

WHAT IS AMERICAN GINSENG?

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is a variety of ginseng native to forested regions in North America. It is the same genus as Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and prized for many of the same reasons—invigorating and fortifying in times of higher stress or greater demands, and for supporting the capacity for mental and physical work. Both American and Asian ginseng contain similar active constituents called ginsenosides. The ginsenosides are thought to be responsible for many of the adaptogenic (i.e., stress and fatigue support) and health-promoting properties associated with ginseng [1]. While there are many different ginsenosides, the most well characterized include Rb1, Rb2, Rg1, Rc, Rd, and Re. 

NEUROHACKER’S AMERICAN GINSENG SOURCING

American Ginseng Root Extract is standardized for 5% ginsenosides.

American Ginseng Root Extract is non-GMO, gluten-free, and vegan.

AMERICAN GINSENG DOSING PRINCIPLES AND RATIONALE

We consider Panax quinquefolius to be in the adaptogenic herb category; following hormetic dosing principles (see Neurohacker Dosing Principles) with a high likelihood of having a hormetic range (i.e., a dosing range below and above which results could be poorer). We have selected to dose this at an amount that is consistent with the doses used in human clinical studies for supporting working memory, alertness, and calmness.*

AMERICAN GINSENG KEY MECHANISMS

Brain function and cognition

Supports attention [2]

Supports working memory [2,3]

Supports learning and memory [4–7]

Supports cholinergic neurotransmission [1,4,5,8,9]

Supports dopaminergic neurotransmission [10–13]

Supports GABAergic neurotransmission [1,14]

Supports neurite outgrowth, dendritic spine density, and synaptic plasticity [1,5–7]

Supports BDNF signaling [1,7,8,15]

Supports neurogenesis [1,8,15] 

Supports neuroprotective functions [1,4,5,8,14,16]

Supports antioxidant defenses [14]

Counters oxidative stress [14]

Supports healthy neural immune/cytokine signaling [1,8,14,17]

Mood

Supports calmness [2]

Supports mood [1,14,18]

Adaptogenic actions (i.e., supports stress resilience and anti-fatigue) [5]

Modulates stress hormone levels / HPA-axis activation [1,14] 

Cardiometabolic effects

Supports healthy cardiometabolic parameters [19–21]

Supports healthy blood glucose levels [22–24]

Supports healthy insulin sensitivity [25]

Supports fat metabolism [19]

Supports mitochondrial enzyme complex activities [14]

 Gut microbiota

Supports healthy gut microbiota composition [26–28]

Supports healthy gut immune/cytokine signaling [26,27,29]

Supports gut-brain axis [30]

Ergogenic actions

Supports high-intensity endurance performance [31,32]

Supports healthy responses to exercise-induced muscle damage [31–33]


REFERENCES 

[1]H.J. Kim, P. Kim, C.Y. Shin, J. Ginseng Res. 37 (2013) 8–29.

[2]A. Scholey, A. Ossoukhova, L. Owen, A. Ibarra, A. Pipingas, K. He, M. Roller, C. Stough, Psychopharmacology 212 (2010) 345–356.

[3]A. Ossoukhova, L. Owen, K. Savage, M. Meyer, A. Ibarra, M. Roller, A. Pipingas, K. Wesnes, A. Scholey, Hum. Psychopharmacol. 30 (2015) 108–122.

[4]K. Shin, H. Guo, Y. Cha, Y.-H. Ban, D.W. Seo, Y. Choi, T.-S. Kim, S.-P. Lee, J.-C. Kim, E.-K. Choi, J.-M. Yon, Y.-B. Kim, Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 78 (2016) 53–58.

[5]Y. Cheng, L.-H. Shen, J.-T. Zhang, Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 26 (2005) 143–149.

[6]I. Mook-Jung, H.S. Hong, J.H. Boo, K.H. Lee, S.H. Yun, M.Y. Cheong, I. Joo, K. Huh, M.W. Jung, J. Neurosci. Res. 63 (2001) 509–515.

[7]H. Zhao, Q. Li, X. Pei, Z. Zhang, R. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Li, Behav. Brain Res. 201 (2009) 311–317.

[8]K. Radad, R. Moldzio, W.-D. Rausch, CNS Neurosci. Ther. 17 (2011) 761–768.

[9]C.G. Benishin, Neurochem. Int. 21 (1992) 1–5.

[10]G.-L. Wang, Y.-P. Wang, J.-Y. Zheng, L.-X. Zhang, Brain Res. 1699 (2018) 44–53.

[11]S.H. Lee, J. Hur, E.H. Lee, S.Y. Kim, Biomol. Ther. 20 (2012) 482–486.

[12]H.S. Kim, Y.T. Hong, K.W. Oh, Y.H. Seong, H.M. Rheu, D.H. Cho, S. Oh, W.K. Park, C.G. Jang, Gen. Pharmacol. 30 (1998) 783–789.

[13]H.S. Kim, K.S. Kim, K.W. Oh, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 63 (1999) 407–412.

[14]P. Chanana, A. Kumar, Front. Neurosci. 10 (2016) 84.

[15]L.-H. Shen, J.-T. Zhang, Neurol. Res. 26 (2004) 422–428.

[16]Y.C. Kim, S.R. Kim, G.J. Markelonis, T.H. Oh, J. Neurosci. Res. 53 (1998) 426–432.

[17]C.F. Wu, X.L. Bi, J.Y. Yang, J.Y. Zhan, Y.X. Dong, J.H. Wang, J.M. Wang, R. Zhang, X. Li, Int. Immunopharmacol. 7 (2007) 313–320.

[18]M. Chatterjee, P. Verma, G. Palit, Indian J. Exp. Biol. 48 (2010) 306–313.

[19]R.K. Singh, E. Lui, D. Wright, A. Taylor, M. Bakovic, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 95 (2017) 1046–1057.

[20]V. Vuksan, Z.Z. Xu, E. Jovanovski, A.L. Jenkins, U. Beljan-Zdravkovic, J.L. Sievenpiper, P. Mark Stavro, A. Zurbau, L. Duvnjak, M.Z.C. Li, Eur. J. Nutr. (2018).

[21]I. Mucalo, E. Jovanovski, D. Rahelić, V. Božikov, Z. Romić, V. Vuksan, J. Ethnopharmacol. 150 (2013) 148–153.

[22]V. Vuksan, M.P. Stavro, J.L. Sievenpiper, V.Y. Koo, E. Wong, U. Beljan-Zdravkovic, T. Francis, A.L. Jenkins, L.A. Leiter, R.G. Josse, Z. Xu, J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 19 (2000) 738–744.

[23]V. Vuksan, J.L. Sievenpiper, V.Y. Koo, T. Francis, U. Beljan-Zdravkovic, Z. Xu, E. Vidgen, Arch. Intern. Med. 160 (2000) 1009–1013.

[24]V. Vuksan, J.L. Sievenpiper, J. Wong, Z. Xu, U. Beljan-Zdravkovic, J.T. Arnason, V. Assinewe, M.P. Stavro, A.L. Jenkins, L.A. Leiter, T. Francis, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73 (2001) 753–758.

[25]L.R. De Souza, A.L. Jenkins, E. Jovanovski, D. Rahelić, V. Vuksan, J. Ethnopharmacol. 159 (2015) 55–61.

[26]C.-Z. Wang, C. Yu, X.-D. Wen, L. Chen, C.-F. Zhang, T. Calway, Y. Qiu, Y. Wang, Z. Zhang, S. Anderson, Y. Wang, W. Jia, C.-S. Yuan, Cancer Prev. Res. 9 (2016) 803–811.

[27]C.-Z. Wang, W.-H. Huang, C.-F. Zhang, J.-Y. Wan, Y. Wang, C. Yu, S. Williams, T.-C. He, W. Du, M.W. Musch, E.B. Chang, C.-S. Yuan, Clin. Transl. Oncol. 20 (2018) 302–312.

[28]R. Zhou, D. He, J. Xie, Q. Zhou, H. Zeng, H. Li, L. Huang, Front. Immunol. 12 (2021) 665901.

[29]C.-Z. Wang, H. Yao, C.-F. Zhang, L. Chen, J.-Y. Wan, W.-H. Huang, J. Zeng, Q.-H. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. Yuan, Y. Bi, C. Sava-Segal, W. Du, M. Xu, C.-S. Yuan, Int. Immunopharmacol. 64 (2018) 246–251.

[30]C.S. Yuan, X. Wang, J.A. Wu, A.S. Attele, J.T. Xie, M. Gu, Phytomedicine 8 (2001) 178–183.

[31]J. Wu, S. Saovieng, I.-S. Cheng, T. Liu, S. Hong, C.-Y. Lin, I.-C. Su, C.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Kuo, J. Ginseng Res. (2018).

[32]C.-W. Hou, S.-D. Lee, C.-L. Kao, I.-S. Cheng, Y.-N. Lin, S.-J. Chuang, C.-Y. Chen, J.L. Ivy, C.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Kuo, PLoS One 10 (2015) e0116387.

[33]M. Estaki, E.G. Noble, Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 40 (2015) 116–121.