Pyrroloquinoline quinone

Overview:
PQQ is a quinone molecule with a potent anti-oxidant and neuroprotective effect. Studies indicate that PQQ can help prevent cognitive decline.

Scientific Name:
Pyrroloquinoline quinone

Mechanisms:

  • PQQ reduces oxidants and is continuously recycled into its active form by glutathione[1]
  • Increases the production of mitochondria and improves their efficiency – can act as a growth factor after prolonged intake[2]
  • Decreases the production of some anti-inflammatory molecules such as IL-6[3]
  • Regulates NMDA glutamate receptor activity – reduces excitoxicity and increases neuroprotection[4]
  • Increases NGF synthesis – promotes neuronal growth and survival[5]
  • Neuroprotective role in aged individuals – attenuates neurodegenerative and age-related cognitive decline[6]
  • Can improve sleep and decrease fatigue and stress[7]
References

[1] Mukai K, et al (2011). Kinetic study of the quenching reaction of singlet oxygen by Pyrroloquinolinequinol (PQQH(2), a reduced form of Pyrroloquinolinequinone) in micellar solution. J Agric Food Chem, 59(5):1705-12. doi: 10.1021/jf104420y
[2] Chowanadisai W, et al (2010). Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1alpha expression. J Biol Chem, 285(1):142-52. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.030130
[3] Harris CB, et al (2013). Dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) alters indicators of inflammation and mitochondrial-related metabolism in human subjects. J Nutr Biochem, 24(12):2076-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.07.008
[4] Aizenman E, et al (1992). Interaction of the putative essential nutrient pyrroloquinoline quinone with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor redox modulatory site. J Neurosci, 12(6):2362-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.030130
[5] Yamaguchi K, et al (1993). Stimulation of nerve growth factor production by pyrroloquinoline quinone and its derivatives in vitro and in vivo. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 57(7):1231-3. doi: 10.1271/bbb.57.1231
[6] Itoh Y, et al (2016). Effect of the Antioxidant Supplement Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt (BioPQQ™) on Cognitive Functions. Adv Exp Med Biol, 876:319-25. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3023-4_40
[7] Nakano M, et al (2012). Effects of Oral Supplementation with Pyrroloquinoline Quinone on Stress, Fatigue, and Sleep. Funct Foods Health Dis, 2(8) 307-324