Niacinamide (Vitamin B3)

Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) Common Name

Niacinamide | Nicotinamide | Vitamin B3

Top Benefits of Niacinamide     

  • Supports energy metabolism*
  • Supports antioxidant defenses*
  • Supports healthy aging and longevity*
  • Supports neuroprotection*

What is Niacinamide?

Niacinamide (vitamin B3) is part of the B complex—a group of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cellular metabolism and energy production. It is called B3 because it was the third of the B complex vitamins to be discovered. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system, because of its ability to prevent pellagra, the vitamin B3 deficiency disease. Unlike the “flushing” niacin (nicotinic acid) form of vitamin B3, niacinamide does not cause flushing. Compounds with niacin activity are defined by their ability to contribute the nicotinamide (i.e., niacinamide) unit of an important molecule called NAD. The NAD molecule sits at the crossroads of mitochondrial energy production, cellular repair and signaling, and cellular defenses. Niacinamide makes NAD via the salvage pathway. NAD, once formed, is a redox molecule. It interconverts between two forms NAD+ and NADH (or the same molecules with a phosphate written as NADP and NADPH) to carry out reactions involved in cellular and mitochondrial energy production and antioxidant defenses. NAD, in the NAD+ configuration, is also an important molecule in several cellular signaling pathways involved in DNA repair and cellular stress adaptation. NAD+ levels are known to decrease with age, and raising NAD+ levels in the body has been reported to have anti-aging and protective effects.

Neurohacker’s Niacinamide Sourcing

Niacinamide is additive with other ingredients with niacin-like activity (such as niacin and tryptophan). Using a combination of ingredients which can be used to make NAD supports the physiological redundancy cells have to create this important molecule.

Niacinamide sourcing is focused on identifying and purchasing from a reputable supplier and ensuring it’s NON-GMO, gluten-free and vegan.

Niacinamide Dosing Principles and Rationale

Vitamin B3, no matter the form, is subject to a dosing threshold (see Neurohacker Dosing Principles), which means, while more might be better within a low to moderate range, very high amounts would be unlikely to add significant additional nutritional or functional benefits for most people but could increase the risk of unwanted responses. As doses of vitamin B3 increase, more gets wasted because it’s eliminated in the urine. This “wasting” increases as dose escalates. For the niacinamide (i.e., non-flushing) form of vitamin B3, we think it’s important to consider the dose where a big increase in urinary elimination starts to occur and focus on dosing in this range (as opposed to substantially above it). Rather than trying to push the pathway that produces NAD with niacinamide alone, we think a better way, and a way that fits with complex systems science, is stacking it with other ingredients that support NAD production and recycling. 

Niacinamide Key Mechanisms 

Precursor of NADH/NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)

  • Supports breakdown of sugars and fats for energy (1)
  • Supports mitochondrial production of ATP (1)
  • NADH is part of complex I NADH/coenzyme Q reductase) of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (2)

Precursor of NADPH/NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)

  • NADPH is a key cofactor for cytochrome P450 enzymes that detoxify xenobiotics (3)
  • NADPH is a cofactor for glutathione reductase, which maintains the levels of reduced glutathione - confers protection against oxidative stress (4)
  • Essential for the functioning of a wide range of enzymes involved in redox reactions (1)

Anti-aging

  • Influences lifespan, senescence, cell proliferation, apoptosis (1)
  • NAD+ is a substrate for sirtuins (SIRT-1 to SIRT-7), which promote healthspan (5)
  • NAD+ is a substrate for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1(PARP-1), which is involved in DNA repair and essential for genome stability (5, 6)
  • NAD+ supports mitochondrial function (7, 8)
  • NAD+ supports stem cell function (8)
  • NAD+ extends lifespan (Caenorhabditis elegans and mice) (7, 8)

Neuroprotection

  • Protects neuronal cells against ischemia and oxidative stress (9, 10)

REFERENCES

1. A. A. Sauve, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 324, 883–893 (2008).
2. N. Pollak, C. Dölle, M. Ziegler, Biochem. J. 402, 205–218 (2007).
3. A. V. Pandey, C. E. Flück, Pharmacol. Ther. 138, 229–254 (2013).
4. G. Filomeni, G. Rotilio, M. R. Ciriolo, Biochem. Pharmacol. 64, 1057–1064 (2002).
5. A. R. Mendelsohn, J. W. Larrick, Rejuvenation Res. 20, 244–247 (2017).
6. J. B. Kirkland, Nutr. Cancer. 46, 110–118 (2003).
7. L. Mouchiroud et al., Cell. 154, 430–441 (2013).
8. H. Zhang et al., Science. 352, 1436–1443 (2016).
9. P. K. Shetty, F. Galeffi, D. A. Turner, Neurobiol. Dis. 62, 469–478 (2014).
10. M. R. Hoane, D. R. Gilbert, M. A. Holland, J. L. Pierce, Neurosci. Lett. 408, 35–39 (2006).

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.