Nootropic Compounds

Potent psychoactive and neuroactive chemicals that play key roles in modulating receptor sites, synaptic enzymes, membrane structures, cerebral perfusion, biogenic processes, neuroendocrine regulation and more.

Celastrus Paniculatus Seed Extract

Scientific Name:
Celastrus paniculatus Willd

Overview:
Celastrus paniculatus is an herb used in Ayurvedic medicine with nootropic and neuroprotective effects. It contains several bioactive compounds including sesquiterpenes such as celastrine, celapanine, celapanigine, celapagin, malkangunin and paniculatine. Celastrus paniculatus has been shown to enhance cognitive function by improving memory and learning, and to protect the brain from oxidative damage and neurotoxicity. Anxiolytic, antidepressant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects have also been described.

Scientific Name:
Celastrus paniculatus Willd

Mechanisms:

  • Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain. [1]
  • Reduces the concentration of monoamine neurotransmitters (noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin) and their metabolites in the brain - decrease in the turnover of central monoamines. [2]
  • Increases brain content of total lipids and phospholipids, possibly due to increased myelination. [19]
  • Decreases the brain levels of malondialdehyde (measure of lipid peroxidation and free radical generation), increases the levels of the antioxidant molecules glutathione and catalase, and superoxide dismutase. [3,10,18]
  • Free-radical-scavenging activity: superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, DPPH (stable radical); reduces H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage. [12,13]
  • Protects neurons against glutamate-induced toxicity, possibly through modulation of NMDA receptor activity. [9,10]
  • Antidepressant-like activity probably by interaction with dopamine-D2, serotonergic, and GABAB receptors, MAO-A inhibition and reduction in plasma corticosterone levels. [15]

Other effects

  • Hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic effect. [20]
  • Gastroprotective activity. [18]
  • Intestinal relaxant effect in vitro. [21,23]
  • Anti-fungal[25] and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. [25-27]

Additional Information:

References

  1. Bhanumathy M, Harish MS, Shivaprasad HN, Sushma G. Nootropic activity of Celastrus paniculatus seed. Pharm Biol. 2010;48(3):324-327. doi:10.3109/13880200903127391.
  2. Nalini K, Karanth KS, Rao A, Aroor AR. Effects of Celastrus paniculatus on passive avoidance performance and biogenic amine turnover in albino rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1995;47(2):101-108. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(95)01264-E.
  3. Kumar MH V, Gupta YK. Antioxidant property of Celastrus paniculatus willd.: a possible mechanism in enhancing cognition. Phytomedicine. 2002;9(4):302-311. doi:10.1078/0944-7113-00136.
  4. Bhagya V, Christofer T, Shankaranarayana Rao BS. Neuroprotective effect of Celastrus paniculatus on chronic stress-induced cognitive impairment. Indian J Pharmacol. 48(6):687-693. doi:10.4103/0253-7613.194853.
  5. Gattu M, Boss KL, Terry A V, Buccafusco JJ. Reversal of scopolamine-induced deficits in navigational memory performance by the seed oil of Celastrus paniculatus. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1997;57(4):793-799. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(96)00391-7.
  6. Raut SB, Parekar RR, Jadhav KS, Marathe PA, Rege NN. Effect of Jyotiṣmatī seed oil on spatial and fear memory using scopolamine induced amnesia in mice. Anc Sci Life. 34(3):130-133. doi:10.4103/0257-7941.157149.
  7. Chakrabarty M, Bhat P, Kumari S, et al. Cortico-hippocampal salvage in chronic aluminium induced neurodegeneration by Celastrus paniculatus seed oil: Neurobehavioural, biochemical, histological study. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2012;3(2):161-171. doi:10.4103/0976-500X.95520.
  8. Malik J, Karan M, Dogra R. Ameliorating effect of Celastrus paniculatus standardized extract and its fractions on 3-nitropropionic acid induced neuronal damage in rats: possible antioxidant mechanism. Pharm Biol. 2017;55(1):980-990. doi:10.1080/13880209.2017.1285945.
  9. Godkar PB, Gordon RK, Ravindran A, Doctor BP. Celastrus paniculatus seed water soluble extracts protect against glutamate toxicity in neuronal cultures from rat forebrain. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;93(2-3):213-219. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.03.051.
  10. Godkar PB, Gordon RK, Ravindran A, Doctor BP. Celastrus paniculatus seed oil and organic extracts attenuate hydrogen peroxide- and glutamate-induced injury in embryonic rat forebrain neuronal cells. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(1-2):29-36. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2003.11.011.
  11. Lekha G, Mohan K, Samy IA. Effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (Jyothismati oil) on acute and chronic immobilization stress induced in swiss albino mice. Pharmacognosy Res. 2010;2(3):169-174. doi:10.4103/0974-8490.65512.
  12. Godkar P, Gordon RK, Ravindran A, Doctor BP. Celastrus paniculatus seed water soluble extracts protect cultured rat forebrain neuronal cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury. Fitoterapia. 2003;74(7-8):658-669. doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(03)00190-4.
  13. Russo A, Izzo AA, Cardile V, Borrelli F, Vanella A. Indian medicinal plants as antiradicals and DNA cleavage protectors. Phytomedicine. 2001;8(2):125-132. doi:10.1078/0944-7113-00021.
  14. Rajkumar R, Kumar EP, Sudha S, Suresh B. Evaluation of anxiolytic potential of Celastrus oil in rat models of behaviour. Fitoterapia. 2007;78(2):120-124. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2006.09.028.
  15. Valecha R, Dhingra D. Behavioral and Biochemical Evidences for Antidepressant-Like Activity of Celastrus Paniculatus Seed Oil in Mice. Basic Clin Neurosci. 2016;7(1):49-56. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27303599.
  16. Ahmad F, Khan RA, Rasheed S. Preliminary screening of methanolic extracts of Celastrus paniculatus and Tecomella undulata for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. J Ethnopharmacol. 1994;42(3):193-198. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(94)90085-X.
  17. Kulkarni YA, Agarwal S, Garud MS. Effect of Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus) seeds in animal models of pain and inflammation. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2015;6(2):82-88. doi:10.4103/0975-9476.146540.
  18. Palle S, Kanakalatha A, Kavitha CN. Gastroprotective and Antiulcer Effects of Celastrus paniculatus Seed Oil Against Several Gastric Ulcer Models in Rats. J Diet Suppl. August 2017:1-13. doi:10.1080/19390211.2017.1349231.
  19. Bidwai PP, Wangoo D, Bhullar NK. Effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed extract on the brain of albino rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1987;21(3):307-314. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(87)90106-1.
  20. Patil RH, Prakash K, Maheshwari VL. Hypolipidemic Effect of Celastrus paniculatus in Experimentally Induced Hypercholesterolemic Wistar Rats. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2010;25(4):405-410. doi:10.1007/s12291-010-0050-x.
  21. Borrelli F, Borbone N, Capasso R, et al. New sesquiterpenes with intestinal relaxant effect from Celastrus paniculatus. Planta Med. 2004;70(7):652-656. doi:10.1055/s-2004-827190.
  22. Borbone N, Borrelli F, Montesano D, et al. Identification of a new sesquiterpene polyol ester from Celastrus paniculatus. Planta Med. 2007;73(8):792-794. doi:10.1055/s-2007-981543.
  23. Borrelli F, Borbone N, Capasso R, et al. Potent relaxant effect of a Celastrus paniculatus extract in the rat and human ileum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;122(3):434-438. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.02.003.
  24. Vonshak A, Barazani O, Sathiyamoorthy P, Shalev R, Vardy D, Golan-Goldhirsh A. Screening South Indian medicinal plants for antifungal activity against cutaneous pathogens. Phytother Res. 2003;17(9):1123-1125. doi:10.1002/ptr.1399.
  25. Panda SK, Mohanta YK, Padhi L, Park Y-H, Mohanta TK, Bae H. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds. Molecules. 2016;21(3):293. doi:10.3390/molecules21030293.
  26. Jyothi KS, Seshagiri M. In-vitro activity of saponins of bauhinia purpurea, madhuca longifolia, celastrus paniculatus and semecarpus anacardium on selected oral pathogens. J Dent (Tehran). 2012;9(4):216-223. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23323183.
  27. Sankar Ganesh P, Ravishankar Rai V. Attenuation of quorum-sensing-dependent virulence factors and biofilm formation by medicinal plants against antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Tradit Complement Med. 2018;8(1):170-177. doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2017.05.008.

Anhydrous Caffeine

Scientific Name:
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine

Overview:
Caffeine is a methylxanthine found in coffee beans, cocoa beans and in tea. Research shows that caffeine is a brain stimulant that increases alertness, wakefulness, attention, working memory, motor activity, and elevates mood. Caffeine is quickly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and is able to easily cross the blood-brain barrier.

Scientific Name:
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine

Mechanisms:

  • Caffeine is an adenosine receptor antagonist.[1]
  • Adenosine decreases the levels of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine. By blocking adenosine receptors, caffeine counters those effects and thereby increases the concentration of those neurotransmitters.[2]
  • Increases cortical activation in the brain.[1]
  • Increases cerebral metabolism.[1]
  • Decreases fatigue and increases mental performance.[3,4]
  • Enhances attention, vigilance and reaction time.[5,6]
  • Improves verbal memory and visuospatial reasoning.[7]
  • Enhances executive function.[8]
  • Improves mood.[9]
  • Increases physical endurance.[10]

More Info:



References

[1]Burnstock G. Introduction to purinergic signalling in the brain. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;986:1-12. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-4719-7-1.
[2]Fredholm BB. Adenosine, Adenosine Receptors and the Actions of Caffeine. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995;76(2):93-101. 10.1111/j.1600-0773.1995.tb00111.x.
[3]Davis JM, Zhao Z, Stock HS, Mehl KA, Buggy J, Hand GA. Central nervous system effects of caffeine and adenosine on fatigue. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;284(2):R399-404. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00386.2002.
[4]Maridakis V, O’Connor PJ, Tomporowski PD. Sensitivity to change in cognitive performance and mood measures of energy and fatigue in response to morning caffeine alone or in combination with carbohydrate.Int J Neurosci. 2009;119(8):1239-1258.
[5]Lanini J, Galduróz JCF, Pompéia S. Acute personalized habitual caffeine doses improve attention and have selective effects when considering the fractionation of executive functions. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2016;31(1):29-43. doi:10.1002/hup.2511.
[6]Einöther SJL, Giesbrecht T. Caffeine as an attention enhancer: reviewing existing assumptions. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013;225(2):251-274. doi:10.1007/s00213-012-2917-4.
[7]Jarvis MJ. Does caffeine intake enhance absolute levels of cognitive performance? Psychopharmacology (Berl).1993;110(1-2):45-52.
[8]Soar K, Chapman E, Lavan N, Jansari AS, Turner JJD. Investigating the effects of caffeine on executive functions using traditional Stroop and a new ecologically-valid virtual reality task, the Jansari assessment of Executive Functions (JEF(©)). Appetite. 2016;105:156-163. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2016.05.021.
[9]Dodd FL, Kennedy DO, Riby LM, Haskell-Ramsay CF. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of caffeine and L-theanine both alone and in combination on cerebral blood flow, cognition and mood. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2015;232(14):2563-2576. doi:10.1007/s00213-015-3895-0.
[10]Plaskett CJ, Cafarelli E. Caffeine increases endurance and attenuates force sensation during submaximal isometric contractions. J Appl Physiol. 2001;91(4):1535-1544. doi:10.1152/jappl.2001.91.4.1535.

Uridine Monophosphate

Scientific Name:
Uridine Monophosphate, (UMP)

Overview:
Uridine is a naturally occurring nucleic acid that plays a key role in many different neuroregulatory processes. It is believed to support short and long term memory, learning, attention, and executive function.

Mechanisms:
  • Uridine plays a key role in phospholipid synthesis, critical for cell membrane integrity[1]
  • Acts as a novel endogenous neurotransmitter via purinergic receptors[2]
  • Neuroprotective via its interaction with NGF and other integrins and growth factors
  • Supports synaptogenesis and neuroplasticity through increasing cerebral phosphatidylcholine levels needed to create dendrite membranes[3]
  • Elevates dopamine without downregulation[4]
  • Building block of RNA[2]
  • Involved in long term potentiation which mediates memory and learning
  • Found in high amounts in human breast milk[5]
  • Synergistic with choline donors, DHA, and other phospholipids[6]

More Info:
References:

[1] Richardson UI, et al (2003). Stimulation of CDP-choline synthesis by uridine or cytidine in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells. Brain Res, 971(2):161-7. doi: 10.1016/S0006-8993(03)02333-3 [2] Dobolyi A, et al (2011). Uridine function in the central nervous system. Curr Top Med Chem, 11(8):1058-67. doi: 10.2174/156802611795347618 [3] Wurtman RJ, et al (2010). Nutritional modifiers of aging brain function: use of uridine and other phosphatide precursors to increase formation of brain synapses. Nutr Rev, 68 Suppl 2:S88-101. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00344.x [4] Wang L, et al (2005). Dietary uridine-5'-monophosphate supplementation increases potassium-evoked dopamine release and promotes neurite outgrowth in aged rats. J Mol Neurosci, 27(1):137-45. doi: 10.1385/JMN:27:1:137 [5] Thorell L, et al (1996). Nucleotides in human milk: sources and metabolism by the newborn infant. Pediatr Res, 40(6):845-52. doi: 10.1203/00006450-199612000-00012 [6] Cansev M, et al (2005). Oral uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) increases brain CDP-choline levels in gerbils. Brain Res, 1058(1-2):101-8. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2005.07.054

Coffeeberry® (caffeine)

Scientific Name:
1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione

References 1. Safety Data Sheet. N1205 Organic CoffeeBerry® Energy 70%. VDF FutureCeuticals, Inc. February 9, 2018. Supplier SDS 2. Food and Drug Administration. Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Opinion: Caffeine 3. European Food Safety Authority. Scientific Opinion on the safety of caffeine. 4. National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets. Green Tea 5. Franco R, et al (2013). Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate. Nutrients, 18;5(10):4159-73. doi: 10.3390/nu5104159

Phosphatidylserine

Scientific Name:
Phosphatidylserine, (PS)

Overview:
PS is a naturally occurring aminophospholipid found in high concentrations in the brain. Studies indicate its ability to reduce stress, fatigue, attention deficit and forgetfulness, and to increase mental processing speed and accuracy, attention and working memory.

Scientific Name:
Phosphatidylserine, (PS)

Mechanisms:

  • Essential component in cell lipid membranes
  • Signaling agent for apoptosis[1]
  • Increases aerobic capacity, possibly through hormone regulation[2,3]
  • Can be converted to other phospholipids including phosphatidylcholine
  • Involved in neurotransmitter modulation and intercellular communication[4]
  • Enhances brain glucose metabolism[5]
  • Global enhancement of mental function shown on EEG[6]
  • Increases NGF activity[7]
References

[1] Lee SH, et al (2013). Phosphatidylserine exposure during apoptosis reflects bidirectional trafficking between plasma membrane and cytoplasm. Cell Death Differ, 20(1):64-76. doi: 10.1038/cdd.2012.93
[2] Kingsley MI, et al (2006). Effects of phosphatidylserine on exercise capacity during cycling in active males. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 38(1):64-71. PMID: 16394955
[3] Monteleone P, et al (1990). Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans. Neuroendocrinology, 52(3):243-8. doi: 10.1159/000125593
[4] Pedata F, et al (1985). Phosphatidylserine increases acetylcholine release from cortical slices in aged rats. Neurobiol Aging, 6(4):337-9. doi: 10.1016/0197-4580(85)90013-2
[5] Klinkhammer P, et al (1990). Effect of Phosphatidylserine on Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Alzheimer’s Disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord, 1:197–201. doi: 10.1159/000107142
[6] Heiss WD, et al (1994). Long-term effects of phosphatidylserine, pyritinol, and cognitive training in Alzheimer’s disease. A neuropsychological, EEG, and PET investigation. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord, 5(2):88-98. doi: 10.1159/000106702
[7] De Simone R, et al (2003). Apoptotic PC12 cells exposing phosphatidylserine promote the production of anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective molecules by microglial cells. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 62(2):208-16. doi: 10.1093/jnen/62.2.208

Phenylethylamine HCL

Scientific Name:
Phenylethylamine, (PEA)

Overview:
PEA is an endogenous neurotransmitter and neuroregulator that plays a key role in mood and cognition. It is associated with states of heightened arousal, euphoria, and excitation, as well as increased attention and concentration.

Scientific Name:
Phenylethylamine, (PEA)

Mechanisms:

  • Stimulates dopamine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine levels[1]
  • Modulates receptor sensitivity and reuptake processes[1]
  • Synthesized in the body from the amino acid phenylalanine[2]
  • Psychoactive ingredient in chocolate and blue green algae[3,4]
  • Synergistic with MAO-B inhibitors like Hordenine[5]
  • Phenylethylamines are a category of empathogens and entheogens derived from PEA and that act largely on its receptor sites[1]
References

[1] Xie Z1 & Miller GM (2008). Beta-phenylethylamine alters monoamine transporter function via trace amine-associated receptor 1: implication for modulatory roles of trace amines in brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 325(2):617-28. doi: 10.1124/jpet.107.134247
[2] Berry MD (2004). Mammalian central nervous system trace amines. Pharmacologic amphetamines, physiologic neuromodulators. J Neurochem, 90(2):257-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02501.x
[3] Granvogl M, et al (2006). Formation of amines and aldehydes from parent amino acids during thermal processing of cocoa and model systems: new insights into pathways of the strecker reaction. J Agric Food Chem, 54(5):1730-9. doi: 10.1021/jf0525939
[4] Güven KC et al (2010). Alkaloids in marine algae. Mar Drugs, 8(2):269-84. doi: 10.3390/md8020269
[5] Cashin CH (1972). Effect of sympathomimetic drugs in eliciting hypertensive responses to reserpine in the rat, after pretreatment with monoamineoxidase inhibitors. Br J Pharmacol. 1972 Feb;44(2):203-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.1972.tb07256.x

Huperzine A

Scientific Name:
Huperzine A extracted  from Huperzia serrata

Overview:
Huperzine A is a potent natural synaptic enzyme modulator. Studies indicate its ability to support learning, memory, neuroplasticity, and executive function.

Scientific Name:
Huperzine A extracted  from Huperzia serrata

  • Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor[1]
  • NMDA receptor antagonist[1]
  • Neuroprotective against hydrogen peroxide damage, glutamate excitotoxicity, and beta amyloid pigmentation[1]
  • Neurogenic through increased proliferation of hippocampal neural stem cells and NGF stimulation[2]
  • Upregulates REM sleep (many report increased lucid dreaming)
  • Supports memory consolidation and neuroplasticity[1]
  • Synergistic with cholinomimetics and cholinosensitizers
References

[1] Wang R, et al (2006). Progress in studies of huperzine A, a natural cholinesterase inhibitor from Chinese herbal medicine. Acta Pharmacol Sin, 27(1):1-26. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7254.2006.00255.x
[2] Ma T, et al (2013). Huperzine A promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Brain Res, 1506:35-43. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2013.02.026

Pterostilbene as pTeroPure

Scientific Name:
3′,5′-Dimethoxy-4-stilbenol

Overview:
Pterostilbene is a powerful cerebral antioxidant and neuroprotectant found naturally in blueberries. Research indicates that pterostilbene may reduce age-related cognitive decline, improving memory, concentration, and learning.

Scientific Name:
3′,5′-Dimethoxy-4-stilbenol

Mechanisms:

    • Powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound[1]
    • Higher bioavailability, half-life and potency than resveratrol – crosses the blood brain barrier efficiently to act as a cerebral antioxidant[1]
    • Inhibits the synthesis of pro-inflammatory molecules such as PGE2[1]
    • Decreases neuroinflammation by inhibiting IkBα
    • Decreases age-related cognitive decline – possibly through protecting dopamine levels[1]
    • Modifies AMPK levels and activates SIRT1 genes associated with caloric restriction and life extension[1]
    • Anxiolytic effects through regulation of ERK phosphorylation[2]
    • Lowers blood glucose and cholesterol levels[3]
References

[1] Poulose SM, et al (2015). Effects of pterostilbene and resveratrol on brain and behavior. Neurochem Int, 89:227-33. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2015.07.017
[2] Al Rahim M, et al (2013). Anxiolytic action of pterostilbene: involvement of hippocampal ERK phosphorylation. Planta Med, 79(9):723-30. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1328553
[3] Estrela JM, et al (2013). Pterostilbene: Biomedical applications. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci, 50(3):65-78. doi: 10.3109/10408363.2013.805182

Theobromine

Scientific Name:
3,7-dimethylxanthine extracted from Theobroma Cacao

Overview:
Theobromine is a methylxanthine related to caffeine extracted from cocoa (Theobroma Cacao) beans. Studies show that theobromine increases alertness, attention, and executive function.

Scientific Name:
3,7-dimethylxanthine extracted from Theobroma Cacao

Mechanisms:

  • A xanthine related to and synergistic with caffeine as a CNS stimulant, with slower onset and longer duration than caffeine[1]
  • Adenosine receptor antagonist (lower affinity than caffeine)[1]
  • Affects neurotransmitters modulated by Adenosine – Noradrenaline, Dopamine, Serotonin, Acetylcholine, Glutamate, and GABA[3]
  • PDE inhibitor, increases intracellular cAMP[2]
  • Increases motor activity[3]
  • Increases information processing rate[3]
  • Increases cerebral metabolism and vasodilation[3]
  • The natural stimulant found in Chocolate (Theobroma) contributing to Cacao’s effect on mood (along with phenylethylamine)[1]
References

[1] Franco R, et al (2013). Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate. Nutrients, 18;5(10):4159-73. doi: 10.3390/nu5104159
[2] Essayan DM (1999). Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors and immunomodulation. Biochem Pharmacol, 57(9):965-73. doi: 10.1016/S0006-2952(98)00331-1
[3] Burnstock G (2013). Introduction to purinergic signalling in the brain. Adv Exp Med Biol, 986:1-12. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-4719-7_1

Pure Energy (Pterostilbene bound to Caffeine)

Scientific Name:
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine

PureEnergy®

Caffeine-pTeroPure® Co-crystal

Overview:
PureEnergy is a patented compound binding caffeine with the potent antioxidant pterostilbene. Binding caffeine with pterostilbene significantly slows the absorption rate of caffeine lengthening its half life and delivering up to 30% more total effect while reducing typical caffeine crash symptoms.

Caffeine

Overview:
Caffeine is a methylxanthine found in coffee beans, cocoa beans and in tea. Research shows that caffeine is a brain stimulant that increases alertness, wakefulness, attention, working memory, and motor activity.

Scientific Name:
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine

Mechanisms:

  • Adenosine receptor antagonist[1]
  • Affects neurotransmitters modulated by Adenosine: Noradrenaline, Dopamine, Serotonin, Acetylcholine, Glutamate, and GABA[1]
  • Phosphodiesterase inhibitor[2]
  • Increases motor activity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase
  • Increases cortical activation in the brain[1]
  • Increases information processing rate and concentration[1]
  • Increases cerebral metabolism[1]

More Info:

References

[1] Burnstock G (2013). Introduction to purinergic signalling in the brain. Adv Exp Med Biol, 986:1-12. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-4719-7_1
[2] Essayan DM (1999). Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors and immunomodulation. Biochem Pharmacol, 57(9):965-73. doi: 10.1016/S0006-2952(98)00331-1