Taurine

COMMON NAME

Taurine 

BENEFITS

Supports brain function *

Supports cognitive function *

Supports mood *

Supports antioxidant defenses *

Supports cardiovascular function *

DESCRIPTION

Taurine is an organic amino sulfonic acid naturally produced in our body.  It has nootropic and neuroprotective actions and can improve memory and has anxiolytic effects.

KEY MECHANISMS

Brain function

Supports synaptic long-term potentiation 1

Modulates GABAergic neurotransmission 2–5

Modulates glycinergic neurotransmission 6

Upregulates BDNF production 5

Cognitive function

Supports short-term memory 5

Mood

Supports mood 6–9

Antioxidant defenses

Downregulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production 10

Downregulates ROS by supporting mitochondrial protein synthesis 11,12

Upregulates antioxidant defenses 13–16

Protects tissues from oxidative damage 8,16–18

Cardiovascular function

Protects vascular endothelial cells 8,19

Protects cardiac muscle cells 17,18

Supports the generation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) 20

Supports healthy blood flow 19

Metabolism

Supports healthy insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism 13,21,22

 

REFERENCES

1. del Olmo N, Suárez LM, Orensanz LM, et al. Role of taurine uptake on the induction of long-term synaptic potentiation. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19(7):1875-1886. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03309.x

2. Kuriyama K, Hashimoto T. Interrelationship between Taurine and GABA. In: Schaffer S, Lombardini JB, Huxtable RJ, eds. Taurine 3: Cellular and Regulatory Mechanisms. Boston, MA: Springer US; 1998:329-337. doi:10.1007/978-1-4899-0117-0_41

3. Bureau MH, Olsen RW. Taurine acts on a subclass of GABAA receptors in mammalian brain in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol. 1991;207(1):9-16. doi:10.1016/S0922-4106(05)80031-8

4. Kontro P, Oja SS. Interactions of taurine with GABAB binding sites in mouse brain. Neuropharmacology. 1990;29(3):243-247. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2158001.

5. Caletti G, Almeida FB, Agnes G, Nin MS, Barros HMT, Gomez R. Antidepressant dose of taurine increases mRNA expression of GABAA receptor α2 subunit and BDNF in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. Behav Brain Res. 2015;283:11-15. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.01.018

6. Zhang CG, Kim S-J. Taurine induces anti-anxiety by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in vivo. Ann Nutr Metab. 2007;51(4):379-386. doi:10.1159/000107687

7. Iio W, Matsukawa N, Tsukahara T, Toyoda A. The effects of oral taurine administration on behavior and hippocampal signal transduction in rats. Amino Acids. 2012;43(5):2037-2046. doi:10.1007/s00726-012-1282-2

8. Caletti G, Olguins DB, Pedrollo EF, Barros HMT, Gomez R. Antidepressant effect of taurine in diabetic rats. Amino Acids. 2012;43(4):1525-1533. doi:10.1007/s00726-012-1226-x

9. Toyoda A, Iio W. Antidepressant-like effect of chronic taurine administration and its hippocampal signal transduction in rats. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;775:29-43. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-6130-2_3

10. Wu QD, Wang JH, Fennessy F, Redmond HP, Bouchier-Hayes D. Taurine prevents high-glucose-induced human vascular endothelial cell apoptosis. Am J Physiol. 1999;277(6):C1229-C1238. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.1999.277.6.C1229

11. Jong CJ, Azuma J, Schaffer S. Mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of taurine: prevention of mitochondrial oxidant production. Amino Acids. 2012;42(6):2223-2232. doi:10.1007/s00726-011-0962-7

12. Schaffer SW, Azuma J, Mozaffari M. Role of antioxidant activity of taurine in diabetes. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;87(2):91-99. doi:10.1139/Y08-110

13. Nandhini ATA, Thirunavukkarasu V, Ravichandran MK, Anuradha CV. Effect of taurine on biomarkers of oxidative stress in tissues of fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats. Singapore Med J. 2005;46(2):82-87. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15678290.

14. Devamanoharan PS, Ali AH, Varma SD. Oxidative stress to rat lens in vitro: protection by taurine. Free Radic Res. 1998;29(3):189-195. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9802550.

15. Guz G, Oz E, Lortlar N, et al. The effect of taurine on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Amino Acids. 2007;32(3):405-411. doi:10.1007/s00726-006-0383-1

16. Tabassum H, Parvez S, Rehman H, Dev Banerjee B, Siemen D, Raisuddin S. Nephrotoxicity and its prevention by taurine in tamoxifen induced oxidative stress in mice. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2007;26(6):509-518. doi:10.1177/0960327107072392

17. Hanna J, Chahine R, Aftimos G, et al. Protective effect of taurine against free radicals damage in the rat myocardium. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2004;56(3):189-194. doi:10.1016/j.etp.2004.08.004

18. Kingston R, Kelly CJ, Murray P. The therapeutic role of taurine in ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(19):2401-2410. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15279617.

19. Moloney MA, Casey RG, O’Donnell DH, Fitzgerald P, Thompson C, Bouchier-Hayes DJ. Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type 1 diabetics. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2010;7(4):300-310. doi:10.1177/1479164110375971

20. Baek Y-Y, Cho DH, Choe J, et al. Extracellular taurine induces angiogenesis by activating ERK-, Akt-, and FAK-dependent signal pathways. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;674(2-3):188-199. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.11.022

21. Nandhini ATA, Thirunavukkarasu V, Anuradha CV. Taurine modifies insulin signaling enzymes in the fructose-fed insulin resistant rats. Diabetes Metab. 2005;31(4 Pt 1):337-344. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16369195.

22. Nandhini ATA, Anuradha CV. Taurine modulates kallikrein activity and glucose metabolism in insulin resistant rats. Amino Acids. 2002;22(1):27-38. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12025872.