Taurine

Overview:
Taurine is an organic amino sulfonic acid with nootropic and neuroprotective actions. It can improve memory and has anxiolytic effects.

Scientific Name:
2-aminoethanesulphonic acid

Mechanisms:

  • Neuroprotective through antioxidant and toxin removal activity[1]
  • May improve memory by increasing long-term synaptic potentiation[2]
  • Activates GABA and Glycine receptors – anxiolytic effect[3]
  • Decreases the affinity of NMDA glutamate receptors to Glycine, needed for their activation[4]
  • Central nervous system depressant – has a sedative effects and promotes sleep and relaxation
  • Cell membrane stabilizer
References

<[1] Aruoma OI, et al (1988). The antioxidant action of taurine, hypotaurine and their metabolic precursors. Biochem J. 1988 Nov 15;256(1):251-5. doi: 10.1042/bj2560251
[2] del Olmo N, et al (2004). Role of taurine uptake on the induction of long-term synaptic potentiation. Eur J Neurosci, 19(7):1875-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03309.x
[3] Zhang CG & Kim SJ (2007). Taurine induces anti-anxiety by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in vivo. Ann Nutr Metab, 51(4):379-86. doi: 10.1159/000107687
[4] Chan CY, et al (2013). Direct interaction of taurine with the NMDA glutamate receptor subtype via multiple mechanisms. Adv Exp Med Biol, 775:45-52. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-6130-2_4
[5] Caletti G, et al (2015). Antidepressant dose of taurine increases mRNA expression of GABAA receptor α2 subunit and BDNF in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. Behav Brain Res, 283:11-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2015.01.018