Vinpocetine

Overview:
Vinpocetine is a vasoactive alkaloid derived from Periwinkle with neuroprotective and nootropic actions. Studies indicate that vinpocetine can benefit attention and memory, decrease fatigue and increase alertness.

Scientific Name:
Ethyl apovincaminate

Mechanisms:

  • Neuroprotective against a wide array of neurotoxic chemicals – through inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels and reduction of calcium-influx into neuronal cells[1]
  • Anti-inflammatory activity – reduces TNFα-induced expression of pro-inflammatory molecules[2]
  • Cerebral vasodilation through phosphodiesterase (PDE) type-1 inhibition – increased blood flow in the brain[3]
  • Improved brain metabolism due to increased glucose availability – leading to increased neuronal ATP
  • Upregulates acetylcholine, noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine receptors[4,5]
  • Cerebral antioxidant[6]
References

[1] Bönöczk P, et al (2000). Role of sodium channel inhibition in neuroprotection: effect of vinpocetine. Brain Res Bull, 53(3):245-54. doi: 10.1016/S0361-9230(00)00354-3
[2] Wang H, et al (2014). Anti-inflammatory effects of vinpocetine on the functional expression of nuclear factor-kappa B and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Neurosci Lett, 566:247-51. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2014.02.045
[3] Hagiwara M, et al (1984). Effects of vinpocetine on cyclic nucleotide metabolism in vascular smooth muscle. Biochem Pharmacol, 33(3):453-7. doi: 10.1016/0006-2952(84)90240-5
[4] Gaál L & Molnár P (1990). Effect of vinpocetine on noradrenergic neurons in rat locus coeruleus. Eur J Pharmacol, 187(3):537-9. doi: 10.1016/0014-2999(90)90383-H
[5] Herrera-Mundo N & Sitges M (2013). Vinpocetine and α-tocopherol prevent the increase in DA and oxidative stress induced by 3-NPA in striatum isolated nerve endings. J Neurochem. 124(2):233-40. doi: 10.1111/jnc.12082
[6] Solanki P, et al (2011). Preventive effect of piracetam and vinpocetine on hypoxia-reoxygenation induced injury in primary hippocampal culture. Food Chem Toxicol, 49(4):917-22. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.12.015