N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine

Overview:
Acetyl-L-Tyrosine is an acetylated form of the amino acid L-Tyrosine with nootropic effects. It increases attention, motivation and concentration, and improves memory and learning.>

Scientific Name:
(2S)-2-(acetylamino)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid

Mechanisms:

  • Increases the bioavailability of Tyrosine[1]
  • Tyrosine is a Dopamine precursor – increases the synthesis of dopamine[2]
  • Increases the synthesis of noradrenaline from dopamine and balances the levels of Serotonin and GABA[1]
  • Anxiolytic activity[3]
  • Improves neuronal communication
  • Melanin precursor – can reduce neurotoxicity by removing quinones and toxic metals[4]
References

[1] Topall G & Laborit H (1989). Brain tyrosine increases after treating with prodrugs: comparison with tyrosine. J Pharm Pharmacol, 41(11):789-91. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.1989.tb06368.x
[2] Fernstrom JD & Fernstrom MH (2007). Tyrosine, phenylalanine, and catecholamine synthesis and function in the brain. J Nutr, 137(6 Suppl 1):1539S-1547S. PMID: 17513421
[3] Banderet LE & Lieberman HR (1989). Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans. Brain Res Bull, 22(4):759-62. doi: 10.1016/0006-8993(84)91207-1
[4] Miyazaki I & Asanuma M (2009). Approaches to prevent dopamine quinone-induced neurotoxicity. Neurochem Res, 34(4):698-706. doi: 10.1007/s11064-008-9843-1