Panax ginseng Root Extract


Ginseng | Korean ginseng | Asian ginseng | Ginseng radix


  • Supports general immune health*
  • Supports upper respiratory health*
  • Supports cognitive function*


The roots of Panax ginseng have been used for thousands of years in China, Korea, and Japan. In these traditions, it was used as a Qi tonic to promote strength, restore vitality, support energy, and to quiet the spirit. “Panax” means “all-healing” in Greek. It is aptly named, based on both its traditional uses and modern scientific research[1]. P. ginseng is characterized as an adaptogen—it is used for invigorating and fortifying in times of higher stress or greater demands. P. ginseng is also used for supporting the capacity for mental and physical work. A great deal of the research on it P. ginseng has been related to the immune system, where it acts as an immune adaptogen, supporting both the innate and adaptive immune systems[2]. The main bioactive compounds of Panax ginseng are ginsenosides[3].


Panax ginseng Root Extract is made from dried roots extracted according to the European Pharmacopoeia. 

Panax ginseng Root Extract is a 3-4:1 extract standardized to contain not less than 4% ginsenosides.

Panax ginseng Root Extract is non-GMO, Halal, Kosher, gluten-free, and vegan.


Because Panax ginseng is an adaptogen, we consider dosing to follow hormetic principles (see Neurohacker Dosing Principles). Herbal adaptogens tend to have a hormetic zone (or range) where there’s a favorable biological response. It’s important to be in this zone. The established daily dose range for Panax ginseng root extracts standardized for 4% ginsenosides is 40-200 mg. Our dosage is consistent with this established dosage range.


Immune function

  • Supports general immune health[4–8]
  • Supports innate immunity[4,9–16]
  • Supports adaptive immunity[4,5,9–12,15–17]
  • Supports cellular intrinsic immune defenses[18–25] 
  • Supports mucosal immunity[26,27]
  • Supports immune tolerance[28–34] 
  • Supports healthy dendritic cell function[10]
  • Supports healthy natural killer cell function[4,9,11–16]
  • Supports healthy macrophage function[9,11,35]
  • Supports healthy T cell function[9–11,15]
  • Supports healthy B cell function[4,5,11,12,15–17,36]
  • Supports immune signaling[5,9,11,27,37–40]
  • Supports immune organ function[38]

Gut microbiota

  • Supports gut microbiota[27,41,42]

Brain function

  • Supports cognitive performance[43–51]
  • Supports against mental fatigue[43,44]
  • Supports brain metabolism[52]
  • Supports neuroprotection[53–56]

Healthy aging

  • Supports antioxidant defenses[38,54,57–61]
  • Supports Nrf2 signaling[9,51,62–66]
  • Supports phase II detox enzymes[9]
  • Supports autophagy[53,67–77]
  • Supports AMPK signaling[68,78]
  • Supports mitochondrial function[61,74,79–86]
  • Supports healthy blood glucose levels[43,44,87]
  • Modulates advanced glycation end product (AGE) production[57,59,60,88–92]


[1]A.R. Bilia, M.C. Bergonzi, J. Ginseng Res. 44 (2020) 179–193.
[2] S.-W. Kang, H.-Y. Min, Journal of Ginseng Research 36 (2012) 354–368.
[3] K.W. Leung, A.S.-T. Wong, Chin. Med. 5 (2010) 20.
[4] F. Scaglione, G. Cattaneo, M. Alessandria, R. Cogo, Drugs Exp. Clin. Res. 22 (1996) 65–72.
[5] F.S. Quan, R.W. Compans, Y.-K. Cho, S.-M. Kang, Vaccine 25 (2007) 272–282.
[6] F. Scaglione, K. Weiser, M. Alessandria, Clin. Drug Investig. 21 (2001) 41–45.
[7] J.K. Seida, T. Durec, S. Kuhle, Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. 2011 (2011) 282151.
[8] J.-W. Jung, H.-R. Kang, G.-E. Ji, M.-S. Park, W.-J. Song, M.-H. Kim, J.-W. Kwon, T.-W. Kim, H.-W. Park, S.-H. Cho, K.-U. Min, Allergy Asthma Immunol. Res. 3 (2011) 103–110.
[9] L.-X. Chen, Y.-L. Qi, Z. Qi, K. Gao, R.-Z. Gong, Z.-J. Shao, S.-X. Liu, S.-S. Li, Y.-S. Sun, Molecules 24 (2019).
[10] M. Takei, E. Tachikawa, A. Umeyama, Biomark. Insights 3 (2008) 269–286.
[11] L.-X. He, J.-W. Ren, R. Liu, Q.-H. Chen, J. Zhao, X. Wu, Z.-F. Zhang, J.-B. Wang, G. Pettinato, Y. Li, Food Funct. 8 (2017) 3523–3532.
[12] Y.H. Jie, S. Cammisuli, M. Baggiolini, Agents Actions 15 (1984) 386–391.
[13] K. Takeda, K. Okumura, Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. 2015 (2015) 603198.
[14] J.Y. Kim, D.R. Germolec, M.I. Luster, Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 12 (1990) 257–276.
[15] C.-J. Liou, W.-C. Huang, J. Tseng, Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 28 (2006) 227–240.
[16] V.K. Singh, S.S. Agarwal, B.M. Gupta, Planta Med. 50 (1984) 462–465.
[17] C.-J. Liou, W.-C. Huang, J. Tseng, Am. J. Chin. Med. 33 (2005) 651–661.
[18] S. Wright, E. Altman, J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 30 (2020) 101–108.
[19] E.H. Park, J. Yum, K.B. Ku, H.M. Kim, Y.M. Kang, J.C. Kim, J.A. Kim, Y.K. Kang, S.H. Seo, J. Ginseng Res. 38 (2014) 40–46.
[20] Y. Wang, Y.-J. Jung, K.-H. Kim, Y. Kwon, Y.-J. Kim, Z. Zhang, H.-S. Kang, B.-Z. Wang, F.-S. Quan, S.-M. Kang, Viruses 10 (2018).
[21] S.Y. Yin, H.J. Kim, H.-J. Kim, Biol. Pharm. Bull. 36 (2013) 1002–1007.
[22] D.-G. Yoo, M.-C. Kim, M.-K. Park, J.-M. Song, F.-S. Quan, K.-M. Park, Y.-K. Cho, S.-M. Kang, J. Med. Food 15 (2012) 855–862.
[23] D.-G. Yoo, M.-C. Kim, M.-K. Park, K.-M. Park, F.-S. Quan, J.-M. Song, J.J. Wee, B.-Z. Wang, Y.-K. Cho, R.W. Compans, S.-M. Kang, PLoS One 7 (2012) e33678.
[24] J.S. Lee, Y.-N. Lee, Y.-T. Lee, H.S. Hwang, K.-H. Kim, E.-J. Ko, M.-C. Kim, S.-M. Kang, Nutrients 7 (2015) 1021–1036.
[25] J.S. Lee, E.-J. Ko, H.S. Hwang, Y.-N. Lee, Y.-M. Kwon, M.-C. Kim, S.-M. Kang, Int. J. Mol. Med. 34 (2014) 183–190.
[26] M. Sumiyoshi, M. Sakanaka, Y. Kimura, J. Ethnopharmacol. 132 (2010) 206–212.
[27] Y. Sun, S. Chen, R. Wei, X. Xie, C. Wang, S. Fan, X. Zhang, J. Su, J. Liu, W. Jia, X. Wang, Food Funct. 9 (2018) 3547–3556.
[28] J.-I. Lee, K.S. Park, I.-H. Cho, J. Ginseng Res. 43 (2019) 342–348.
[29] J. Kim, H. Byeon, K. Im, H. Min, Food Sci. Biotechnol. 27 (2018) 227–232.
[30] M.J. Lee, M. Jang, J. Choi, B.S. Chang, D.Y. Kim, S.-H. Kim, Y.-S. Kwak, S. Oh, J.-H. Lee, B.-J. Chang, S.-Y. Nah, I.-H. Cho, Mol. Neurobiol. 53 (2016) 1977–2002.
[31] J. Jhun, J. Lee, J.-K. Byun, E.-K. Kim, J.-W. Woo, J.-H. Lee, S.-K. Kwok, J.-H. Ju, K.-S. Park, H.-Y. Kim, S.H. Park, M.-L. Cho, Mediators Inflamm. 2014 (2014) 351856.
[32] G.N. Oh, S.W. Son, J. Ginseng Res. 36 (2012) 391–395.
[33] J.-K. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, S.-E. Jang, M.-S. Choi, H.-M. Jang, H.-H. Yoo, D.-H. Kim, Am. J. Chin. Med. 46 (2018) 1879–1897.
[34] S.B. Heo, S.W. Lim, J.Y. Jhun, M.L. Cho, B.H. Chung, C.W. Yang, J. Ginseng Res. 40 (2016) 18–27.
[35] J. Hao, H. Hu, J. Liu, X. Wang, X. Liu, J. Wang, M. Niu, Y. Zhao, X. Xiao, Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. 2019 (2019) 3630260.
[36] M.L. Xu, H.J. Kim, Y.R. Choi, H.-J. Kim, J. Ginseng Res. 36 (2012) 396–402.
[37] M. Pannacci, V. Lucini, F. Colleoni, C. Martucci, S. Grosso, P. Sacerdote, F. Scaglione, Brain Behav. Immun. 20 (2006) 546–551.
[38] J. Sun, L. Zhang, J. Zhang, R. Ran, Y. Shao, J. Li, D. Jia, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Wang, Int. Immunopharmacol. 58 (2018) 94–102.
[39] H. Mohammadi, A. Hadi, H. Kord-Varkaneh, A. Arab, M. Afshari, A.J.R. Ferguson, E. Ghaedi, Phytother. Res. 33 (2019) 1991–2001.
[40] H.L. Jung, H.E. Kwak, S.S. Kim, Y.C. Kim, C.D. Lee, H.K. Byurn, H.Y. Kang, Am. J. Chin. Med. 39 (2011) 441–450.
[41] M.-Y. Song, B.-S. Kim, H. Kim, J. Ginseng Res. 38 (2014) 106–115.
[42] Sun Y.-F., Zhang X., Wang X.-Y., Jia W., Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 43 (2018) 3927–3932.
[43] J.L. Reay, D.O. Kennedy, A.B. Scholey, J. Psychopharmacol. 19 (2005) 357–365.
[44] J.L. Reay, D.O. Kennedy, A.B. Scholey, J. Psychopharmacol. 20 (2006) 771–781.
[45] S.I. Sünram-Lea, R.J. Birchall, K.A. Wesnes, O. Petrini, Curr. Top. Nutraceutical Res. 3 (2005) 65–74.
[46] D.O. Kennedy, C.F. Haskell, K.A. Wesnes, A.B. Scholey, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 79 (2004) 401–411.
[47] D.O. Kennedy, A.B. Scholey, K.A. Wesnes, Physiol. Behav. 75 (2002) 739–751.
[48] A.B. Scholey, D.O. Kennedy, Hum. Psychopharmacol. 17 (2002) 35–44.
[49] D.O. Kennedy, A.B. Scholey, K.A. Wesnes, Nutr. Neurosci. 4 (2001) 295–310.
[50] L. D’Angelo, R. Grimaldi, M. Caravaggi, M. Marcoli, E. Perucca, S. Lecchini, G.M. Frigo, A. Crema, J. Ethnopharmacol. 16 (1986) 15–22.
[51] Y. Lee, S. Oh, J. Ginseng Res. 39 (2015) 250–256.
[52] M.M. Samira, M.A. Attia, M. Allam, O. Elwan, J. Int. Med. Res. 13 (1985) 342–348.
[53] Y. Li, F. Wang, Y. Luo, J. Surg. Res. 207 (2017) 181–189.
[54] X. Tan, J. Gu, B. Zhao, S. Wang, J. Yuan, C. Wang, J. Chen, J. Liu, L. Feng, X. Jia, J. Ginseng Res. 39 (2015) 116–124.
[55] D. Kim, H. Jeon, S. Ryu, S. Koo, K.-T. Ha, S. Kim, PLoS One 11 (2016) e0164906.
[56] J.M. Van Kampen, D.B. Baranowski, C.A. Shaw, D.G. Kay, Exp. Gerontol. 50 (2014) 95–105.
[57] J. Li, D. Cai, X. Yao, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, P. Jing, L. Wang, Y. Wang, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17 (2016).
[58] S. Park, C.-S. Kim, J. Min, S.H. Lee, Y.-S. Jung, J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 60 (2014) 159–166.
[59] H.Y. Kim, K.S. Kang, N. Yamabe, T. Yokozawa, Am. J. Chin. Med. 36 (2008) 989–1004.
[60] K.S. Kang, N. Yamabe, H.Y. Kim, J.H. Park, T. Yokozawa, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 591 (2008) 266–272.
[61] E. González-Burgos, C. Fernández-Moriano, R. Lozano, I. Iglesias, M.P. Gómez-Serranillos, Food Chem. Toxicol. 109 (2017) 38–47.
[62] G. Carota, M. Raffaele, V. Sorrenti, L. Salerno, V. Pittalà, S. Intagliata, Fitoterapia 139 (2019) 104370.
[63] L. Liu, M.G. Kelly, E.L. Wierzbicki, I.C. Escober-Nario, M.K. Vollmer, S. Doré, Antioxidants (Basel) 8 (2019).
[64] L. Liu, M.K. Vollmer, A.S. Ahmad, V.M. Fernandez, H. Kim, S. Doré, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 131 (2019) 98–114.
[65] C.Y. Kim, B. Kang, H.J. Suh, H.-S. Choi, Biomed. Pharmacother. 108 (2018) 1507–1516.
[66] C.L.L. Saw, A.Y. Yang, D.C. Cheng, S.S.-S. Boyanapalli, Z.-Y. Su, T.O. Khor, S. Gao, J. Wang, Z.-H. Jiang, A.-N.T. Kong, Chem. Res. Toxicol. 25 (2012) 1574–1580.
[67] H.-H. Park, S.-W. Choi, G.J. Lee, Y.-D. Kim, H.-J. Noh, S.-J. Oh, I. Yoo, Y.-J. Ha, G.-B. Koo, S.-S. Hong, S.W. Kwon, Y.-S. Kim, J. Ginseng Res. 43 (2019) 86–94.
[68] Y. Chung, S. Jeong, H.S. Choi, S. Ro, J.S. Lee, J.K. Park, Anim Cells Syst (Seoul) 22 (2018) 382–389.
[69] Z.-M. Xu, C.-B. Li, Q.-L. Liu, P. Li, H. Yang, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19 (2018).
[70] P. Zhou, W. Xie, Y. Luo, S. Lu, Z. Dai, R. Wang, X. Zhang, G. Li, G. Sun, X. Sun, Molecules 23 (2018).
[71] X.-Y. Zhang, K. Sun, Q. Zhu, T. Song, Y. Liu, Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci. 33 (2017) 535–542.
[72] P. Wang, C. Lin, S. Wu, K. Huang, Y. Wang, X. Bao, F. Zhang, Z. Huang, H. Teng, Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 38 (2018) 679–690.
[73] S.W. Lim, L. Jin, K. Luo, J. Jin, C.W. Yang, Lab. Invest. 97 (2017) 1271–1281.
[74] J.-H. Moon, J.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Lee, S.-Y. Park, Oncotarget 7 (2016) 85697–85708.
[75] X. Zheng, W. Chen, H. Hou, J. Li, H. Li, X. Sun, L. Zhao, X. Li, Biomed. Pharmacother. 85 (2017) 620–626.
[76] D.-G. Kim, K.H. Jung, D.-G. Lee, J.-H. Yoon, K.S. Choi, S.W. Kwon, H.-M. Shen, M.J. Morgan, S.-S. Hong, Y.-S. Kim, Oncotarget 5 (2014) 4438–4451.
[77] S.W. Lim, K.C. Doh, L. Jin, J. Jin, S.G. Piao, S.B. Heo, B.H. Chung, C.W. Yang, Nephrology 19 (2014) 490–499.
[78] H.-S. Yoo, J.M. Kim, E. Jo, C.-K. Cho, S.-Y. Lee, H.S. Kang, M.-G. Lee, P.-Y. Yang, I.-S. Jang, Oncol. Rep. 37 (2017) 3287–3296.
[79] Y. Zhang, X. Yang, S. Wang, S. Song, J. Agric. Food Chem. 67 (2019) 10048–10058.
[80] S.J. Shin, S.G. Jeon, J.-I. Kim, Y.-O. Jeong, S. Kim, Y.H. Park, S.-K. Lee, H.H. Park, S.B. Hong, S. Oh, J.-Y. Hwang, H.S. Kim, H. Park, Y. Nam, Y.Y. Lee, J.-J. Kim, S.-H. Park, J.-S. Kim, M. Moon, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20 (2019).
[81] J.-K. Park, J.-Y. Shim, A.-R. Cho, M.-R. Cho, Y.-J. Lee, J. Med. Food 21 (2018) 544–550.
[82] L. Bao, X. Cai, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, B. Sun, Y. Li, Nutrients 8 (2016).
[83] X.-T. Li, R. Chen, L.-M. Jin, H.-Y. Chen, Am. J. Chin. Med. 37 (2009) 1139–1152.
[84] A.C. Cabral de Oliveira, A.C. Perez, J.G. Prieto, I.D.G. Duarte, A.I. Alvarez, J. Ethnopharmacol. 97 (2005) 211–214.
[85] J. Voces, A.C. Cabral de Oliveira, J.G. Prieto, L. Vila, A.C. Perez, I.D.G. Duarte, A.I. Alvarez, Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 37 (2004) 1863–1871.
[86] Y. Fu, L.L. Ji, J. Nutr. 133 (2003) 3603–3609.
[87] J.L. Reay, D.O. Kennedy, A.B. Scholey, Br. J. Nutr. 96 (2006) 639–642.
[88] C.-S. Kim, K. Jo, J.S. Kim, M.-K. Pyo, J. Kim, BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 17 (2017) 430.
[89] K.S. Kang, J. Ham, Y.-J. Kim, J.H. Park, E.-J. Cho, N. Yamabe, J. Ginseng Res. 37 (2013) 379–388.
[90] H.Y. Quan, D.Y. Kim, S.H. Chung, J. Ginseng Res. 37 (2013) 187–193.
[91] H.Y. Kim, K.S. Kang, N. Yamabe, R. Nagai, T. Yokozawa, J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 (2007) 8491–8497.
[92] K.S. Kang, H.Y. Kim, N. Yamabe, R. Nagai, T. Yokozawa, Biol. Pharm. Bull. 29 (2006) 1678–1684.