Coenzyme Q10 / CoQ10 / ubiquinone
Supports mitochondrial health*
Supports antioxidant defenses*
Support cardiovascular function*
Supports brain function*
Supports healthy aging*
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an important fat-soluble nutrient, because it’s essential for cellular energy production (i.e., ATP) and antioxidant defenses, helping protect membranes from oxidative stress. Because of its central role in ATP generation, the highest amounts of CoQ10 are found in organs that use the most energy, like the heart, liver, and kidneys. Meat and fish, especially their organs, are very good food sources. The best vegetarian sources are foods high in fat, including nuts, seeds, avocados, and vegetable oils. A person eating an average diet will get about 3-6 mg of CoQ10 a day [1–4]. Most CoQ10 isn't from diet, it's made in the body (i.e., biosynthesized), with creation requiring at least 12 genes. While the human body can make CoQ10, it may not always be able to make enough to meet its needs . This seems to occur with aging, because CoQ10 gradually declines with age in a number of different tissues [6,7].*
CoQ10 is most commonly supplemented in its oxidized from, which is called ubiquinone. Most human clinical studies has been the ubiquinone form. It can also be supplemented in its reduced ubiquinol form.
CoQ10 sourcing is focused on ensuring it is non-GMO, gluten-free and vegan.
CoQ10 is dose-dependent (see Neurohacker Dosing Principles) in the range it’s commonly dosed (30 mg to several hundred milligrams a day). Body stores are maintained by a combination of the CoQ10 we consume in foods and supplements, and the CoQ10 made in our body . It’s been suggested that a daily intake ranging from 30–100 mg in otherwise healthy persons is a good range to maintain healthy levels [7,8]. CoQ10 is additive with other mitochondrial and antioxidant nutrients. This means lower doses of CoQ10 are often needed to support healthy function when it is combined with other nutrients, compared to when it is given as an isolated nutrient.*
Supports mitochondrial biogenesis*
Supports peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) [9,10]
Supports nuclear transcription factors of mitochondrial biogenesis (nuclear respiratory factor 2 [NRF2], mitochondrial transcription factor A [TFAM]) 
Supports mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 
Supports mitochondria levels [10,11]
Supports mitochondrial function and structure*
CoQ10 is part of the electron transport chain of the inner mitochondrial membrane 
CoQ10 transfers electrons from complexes I and II to complex III by undergoing redox cycles between its three redox states (ubiquinone [fully oxidized], ubisemiquinone, and ubiquinol [fully reduced]) 
CoQ10 is critical in ATP generation via the electron transfer chain 
Supports mitochondrial complex I-V performance [10,13,14]
Promotes ATP production 
Supports the NAD+ pool (NAD+/NADH ratio) 
Supports β-oxidation 
Influences NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) [16,17]
Supports mitochondrial membrane potential [11,18]
Supports signaling pathways*
Supports AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity [9,10,15,18,19]
Supports peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) [9,10,15]
Supports liver kinase B1 (LKB1) 
Supports cAMP [9,10]
Supports healthy lysosomal function*
Supports the transport of protons across lysosomal membranes to maintain the optimal pH 
Supports the activity of digestive enzymes within lysosomes 
Supports the lysosomal digestion of cellular debris 
Supports antioxidant defenses*
Coenzyme Q10 (as ubiquinol) is a potent lipid soluble antioxidant [12,20,21]
Counters reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress [7,10,17,18,20,22]
Supports antioxidant defenses [13,14,23]
Replenishes glutathione (GSH) levels 
Supports the regeneration of the lipophilic antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) [12,21]
Promotes a healthy body weight*
Supports healthy fat levels and blood/liver lipid levels 
Supports healthy adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation 
Influences peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activity 
Promotes the thermogenic function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) 
Supports uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) activity 
Supports healthy cardiovascular function*
Supports healthy cardiac function [24–26]
Supports healthy vascular function 
Supports healthy endothelial cell oxidative stress responses [19,28]
Supports endothelial progenitor cells 
Supports endothelial function and blood flow [29–31]
Supports brain function*
Supports neuroprotective functions [17,32]
Supports brain mitochondria 
Promotes healthy aging and longevity*
Supports SIRT1 and SIRT3 [9,10]
Supports DNA structure 
Supports lifespan extension (rats fed on a PUFA-rich diet) 
Lipoic acid — support of mitochondrial function [34–37]
Creatine — support of neuroprotection and of mitochondrial function [34,35,38]
L-carnitine — support of mitochondrial function 
Piperine — support of CoQ10 bioavailability 
Vitamin B3 (NAD+ precursors) — supports mitochondrial performance 
Vitamin E — support of mitochondrial function 
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.
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