Alpha GPC

Alpha-GPC is a compound made up of choline and glycerophosphate with neuroprotective activity. Alpha-GPC prevents cognitive decline, and increases attention and memory.

Scientific Name:


  • Dissociates into choline and the phospholipid glycerophosphate after ingestion[1]
  • The most effective cholinergic in increasing choline levels in the brain[2]
  • Choline is a nicotinic Acetylcholine receptor agonist[3]
  • Increases the production of acetylcholine[1]
  • Increases cell membrane phospholipid production, namely phosphatidylcholine[1]
  • Maintains neuronal membrane integrity[4]
  • Increases potassium-invoked calcium release and dopamine release[5,6]
  • Can increase growth hormone production[7]

[1] Abbiati G, et al (1993). Absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of radiolabelled compounds in rats after administration of [14C]-L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet, 18(2):173-80. doi: 10.1007/BF03188793
[2] Gatti G, et al (1992). A comparative study of free plasma choline levels following intramuscular administration of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine and citicoline in normal volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol, 30(9):331-5. PMID: 1428296
[3] Levin ED (2013). Complex relationships of nicotinic receptor actions and cognitive functions. Biochem Pharmacol, 86(8):1145-52. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2013.07.021
[4] Klein J (2000). Membrane breakdown in acute and chronic neurodegeneration: focus on choline-containing phospholipids. J Neural Transm (Vienna), 107(8-9):1027-63. doi: 10.1007/s007020070051
[5] Schettini G, et al (1992). Molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, a new cognition-enhancing drug, on behavioral and biochemical parameters in young and aged rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 43(1):139-51. doi: 10.1016/0091-3057(92)90650-5
[6] Trabucchi M, et al (1986). Changes in the interaction between CNS cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons induced by L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, a cholinomimetic drug. Farmaco Sci. 1986 Apr;41(4):325-34. PMID: 3709792
[7] Ceda GP, et al (1992). alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine administration increases the GH responses to GHRH of young and elderly subjects. Horm Metab Res, 24(3):119-21. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-1003272