Collective Insights Blog

What Is Oxidative Phosphorylation?

What Is Oxidative Phosphorylation?

Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is the major pathway of ATP production. ATP is the energy-rich molecule that powers cellular processes that require energy input. OXPHOS occurs in mitochondria and uses energy extracted in the metabolism of cellular fuels, particularly in glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and the citric acid cycle, to power the production of ATP.

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 How is NAD+ Made? Preiss-Handler Pathway

How is NAD+ Made? Preiss-Handler Pathway

In 1958, Jack Preiss and Philip Handler published a scientific paper describing how NAD+ was made from niacin in three steps.(1) This pathway was later named the Preiss-Handler pathway after the co-discoverers. It describes the enzyme steps needed to convert niacin into the NAD+ molecule.

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What is CD38? An Exploration of NAD+ Consumption Uses and Functions of CD38

What is CD38? An Exploration of NAD+ Consumption Uses and Functions of CD38

In this article, we’re going to introduce an indirect way of supporting NAD+. Rather than making more, this article will be teaching you about using less. Using less requires downregulating a protein called cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38 for short). When CD38 is not as active, less NAD+ is used by it. The result is higher NAD+ levels and greater NAD+ availability for important healthy aging uses.

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NAD+ Consumption Uses: An Overview

NAD+ Consumption Uses: An Overview

The NAD+ form of the molecule is required for certain cellular signaling reactions that change the way cells behave. Unlike redox, where the molecule is conserved, the NAD+ molecule is broken apart or “consumed” when used for signaling. It’s these NAD+ consumption uses that have been a main reason for the resurgence of scientific interest in strategies to boost NAD+.

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Sophorae japonica L. Flower Extract: Sources and Benefits

Sophorae japonica L. Flower Extract: Sources and Benefits

Rutin is a type of polyphenol called a flavonoid glycoside. It’s composed of quercetin and the disaccharide rutinose. It’s also called rutoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and sophorin. While it’s found in a wide variety of plants, including citrus, foods with the highest concentrations of rutin include capers, black olives, buckwheat, and asparagus. The most common use of rutin has been for supporting healthy veins. But it does much more.

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Benefits of Niacin & Niacinamide

Benefits of Niacin & Niacinamide

The main role of vitamin B3 is to make NAD molecules. This is important because the NAD molecule sits at the crossroads of mitochondrial energy production (i.e., ATP), cellular repair and signaling, and cellular defenses. Unfortunately, NAD+ levels decrease with age. This is the bad news. The good news is that there are strategies that can be used to make more NAD+. One of these is vitamin B3.

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How is NAD+ Made? Salvage Pathway

How is NAD+ Made? Salvage Pathway

The salvage pathway is used to produce NAD+ from nicotinamide molecules. Whether the source of the nicotinamide is vitamin B3 (as niacinamide), newer nicotinamides (e.g., nicotinamide riboside [NR], nicotinamide mononucleotide [NMN]), or molecules in food that get broken down during digestion into nicotinamide, the salvage pathway turns them into NAD+ in our tissues.

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How is NAD+ Made? De Novo Synthesis

How is NAD+ Made? De Novo Synthesis

Most organisms have several alternatives for producing the NAD+ molecule. In humans, there are three major NAD+ biosynthesis pathways: the De Novo Pathway, starting from the essential amino acid L-tryptophan; the Preiss-Handler pathway, using niacin (nicotinic acid); and the Salvage Pathway from niacinamide (nicotinamide). In this article, we’ll be covering the De Novo Pathway.

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