Acetyl-L-Carnitine

Overview:
Acetyl-L-Carnitine is an acetylated form of L-carnitine with anti-aging, neuroprotective and nootropic effects. It decreases fatigue and improves attention, memory, learning and executive function.

Scientific Name:
(R)-3-Acetyloxy-4-trimethylammonio-butanoate/p>

Mechanisms:

  • The acetylated version of L-Carnitine can cross the blood brain barrier thereby providing better cognitive benefits[1]
  • In the brain, it originates Acetyl-CoA that can bind to choline to increase the production of Acetylcholine[1]
  • Synergistic with choline donors
  • Can increase the release of Noradrenaline and Serotonin[2]
  • Increases synaptic plasticity[3]
  • Potent cerebral antioxidant activity – can prevent and repair oxidative damage to neurons[4]
  • Increases energy production by mitochondria[5]
  • Can decrease toxicity associated with excessive excitatory neurotransmitter release and cellular waste accumulation[4]
References

[1] Nałecz KA, et al (2004). Carnitine: transport and physiological functions in the brain. Mol Aspects Med, 25(5-6):551-67.
[2] Smeland OB, et al (2012). Chronic acetyl-L-carnitine alters brain energy metabolism and increases noradrenaline and serotonin content in healthy mice. Neurochem Int, 61(1):100-7.
[3] Laschi R, et al (1990). Ultrastructural aspects of aging rat hippocampus after long-term administration of acetyl-L-carnitine. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res, 10(1-2):59-63.
[4] Zanelli SA, et al (2005). Mechanisms of ischemic neuroprotection by acetyl-L-carnitine. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1053:153-61.
[5] Reuter SE & Evans AM (2012). Carnitine and acylcarnitines: pharmacokinetic, pharmacological and clinical aspects. Clin Pharmacokinet, 51(9):553-72.