Acetyl-L-Carnitine is an acetylated form of L-carnitine with anti-aging, neuroprotective and nootropic effects. It decreases fatigue and improves attention, memory, learning and executive function.
- The acetylated version of L-Carnitine can cross the blood brain barrier thereby providing better cognitive benefits
- In the brain, it originates Acetyl-CoA that can bind to choline to increase the production of Acetylcholine
- Synergistic with choline donors
- Can increase the release of Noradrenaline and Serotonin
- Increases synaptic plasticity
- Potent cerebral antioxidant activity – can prevent and repair oxidative damage to neurons
- Increases energy production by mitochondria
- Can decrease toxicity associated with excessive excitatory neurotransmitter release and cellular waste accumulation
 Nałecz KA, et al (2004). Carnitine: transport and physiological functions in the brain. Mol Aspects Med, 25(5-6):551-67.
 Smeland OB, et al (2012). Chronic acetyl-L-carnitine alters brain energy metabolism and increases noradrenaline and serotonin content in healthy mice. Neurochem Int, 61(1):100-7.
 Laschi R, et al (1990). Ultrastructural aspects of aging rat hippocampus after long-term administration of acetyl-L-carnitine. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res, 10(1-2):59-63.
 Zanelli SA, et al (2005). Mechanisms of ischemic neuroprotection by acetyl-L-carnitine. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1053:153-61.
 Reuter SE & Evans AM (2012). Carnitine and acylcarnitines: pharmacokinetic, pharmacological and clinical aspects. Clin Pharmacokinet, 51(9):553-72.