Alpha GPC

ALPHA-GLYCEROPHOSPHOCHOLINE COMMON NAME

Alpha-GPC | Glycerophosphocholine | Choline alphoscerate | L-alpha-glycerophosphocholine

TOP BENEFITS OF ALPHA-GLYCEROPHOSPHOCHOLINE

Supports cognitive function*

Supports exercise performance* 

WHAT IS ALPHA-GLYCEROPHOSPHOCHOLINE?

Alpha-glycerophosphocholine (alpha-GPC) is a choline-containing phospholipid that can be used to augment the body and brain choline pool. In this role it serves as a precursor for both acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Alpha-GPC and citicoline (i.e., CDP-choline) are considered the nootropic forms of choline, with both forms able to increase brain choline levels, act as building blocks for acetylcholine, and support choline-dependent neurotransmission.[1–4]* However, of the two, alpha-GPC contains a higher proportion of choline, so a lower dose of alpha-GPC gives greater choline support than a similar dose of citicoline.[5–7] This means that by weight alpha-GPC is the more efficient choline precursor. Following an oral dose, alpha-GPC metabolizes into choline and the phospholipid glycerophosphate. The choline can be used for acetylcholine synthesis and neurotransmission.[3,8–14] Acetylcholine is central to brain neurotransmission; it’s also used in both the fight or flight and rest and relax parts of the autonomic nervous system; and it is a signaling molecule for activating muscles. Because alpha-GPC is a precursor in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, it plays a supportive role in a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, concentration, mental focus, and memory formation and recall.[15]* Alpha-GPC also supports aspects of muscle performance, and is involved in maintaining organs and tissues.* And, because alpha-GPC can be readily metabolized into phosphatidylcholine, it can be used to support the structure and function of cell membranes. Alpha-GPC is found in low amounts in a variety of foods[16] and in breast milk.[17,18] 

NEUROHACKER’S ALPHA-GLYCEROPHOSPHOCHOLINE SOURCING

Alpha-glycerophosphocholine (Alpha-GPC) is a source of choline; it is able to influence both systemic and brain concentrations of choline.

Alpha-GPC is derived from soy.

Neurohacker uses an Alpha-GPC that is sourced to be non-GMO, gluten-free, and vegan.

ALPHA-GLYCEROPHOSPHOCHOLINE DOSING PRINCIPLES AND RATIONALE

Alpha-glycerophosphocholine (Alpha-GPC) is by weight one of the best sources of choline. While alpha-GPC is often treated as if it’s dose-dependent (i.e., a higher dose is better) and doses of 1200 mg/day have been used in some clinical studies, Neurohacker believes the evidence suggests a threshold response (see Neurohacker Dosing Principles) when alpha-GPC is given to healthy people. This means that more might not be better under all circumstances. As an example, in a study of healthy college-aged men, while the higher dose (500 mg/day) of alpha-GPC did a better job increasing free choline levels, the lower dose (250 mg/day) produced a better peak muscle force response.[19] In general, Neurohacker’s experience with alpha-GPC (as well as citicoline) indicate that when used as part of comprehensive nootropic formulations, a more modest dose is often sufficient. Alpha-GPC is a useful choline source in liquids because of its taste and solubility. In general, the best time to take alpha-GPC is early in the day.

ALPHA-GLYCEROPHOSPHOCHOLINE KEY MECHANISMS

Augments choline pool

Alpha-GPC is part of the CDP-choline (or Kennedy) pathway, which has a central role in choline homeostasis [13,14]

Supports plasma choline levels [20]

Precursor for phosphatidylcholine synthesis [3]

Precursor for acetylcholine synthesis [2,3]

Brain function

Supports memory and learning [7,27,36]

Supports attention [7,36]

Supports cognition [2,3,15,36,37]

Supports acetylcholine synthesis and release [2,3,21]

Supports vesicular acetylcholine transporter levels [21,22]

Supports high affinity choline uptake transporter levels [22]

Protects from age-related changes in cholinergic neurotransmission [23]

Supports dopamine synthesis and release [1,24]

Supports dopamine plasma membrane transporter (DAT) levels [24]

Supports serotonin synthesis [24]

Supports GABA release [25]

Supports phospholipid synthesis [9,26]

Supports phosphoinositide synthesis [26,27]

Supports protein kinase C (PKC) activation [28–30]

Supports growth hormone secretion from the pituitary gland [10,20,31]

Counters some age-related brain microstructural changes [32–35]

Supports neuroprotective functions [2,3]

Exercise Performance

Supports isometric force production [38]

Supports maximum power and velocity in jump movements [19]

Synergies

CDP-choline, Uridine Monophosphate, Huperzine A, Bacopa monnieri, Celastrus paniculatus, Coleus forskohlii, Vitamin B5 in supporting cholinergic neurotransmission


REFERENCES 

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