Artichoke Stem and Leaf Extract

Overview:
Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) is a plant that contains cynarin, having nootropic effects. Cynarin can significantly improve memory and executive function.

Scientific Name:
Cynara cardunculus

Mechanisms:



      • Artichoke extract contains polyphenols with antioxidant action and cynarin, its main biologically active compound[1]
      • Increases long-term synaptic potentiation – improved memory[2]
      • Enhances working memory, short-term memory, memory consolidation, and memory recall[2]
      • Synergistic with forskolin in increasing cAMP levels – inhibits phosphodiesterase-4[3]
      • Enhances logic, mathematical, and practical reasoning[4]
References

[1] Li H, et al (2004). Flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) up-regulate endothelial-type nitric-oxide synthase gene expression in human endothelial cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 310(3):926-32. doi: 10.1124/jpet.104.066639
[2] Barad M, et al (1998). Rolipram, a type IV-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, facilitates the establishment of long-lasting long-term potentiation and improves memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95(25):15020-5. PMID: 9844008
[3] Yu MC, et al (2010). Luteolin, a non-selective competitive inhibitor of phosphodiesterases 1-5, displaced [3H]-rolipram from high-affinity rolipram binding sites and reversed xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia. Eur J Pharmacol, 627(1-3):269-75. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.10.031
[4] Reneerkens OA, et al (2009). Selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors: a promising target for cognition enhancement. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 202(1-3):419-43. doi: 10.1007/s00213-008-1273-x