Pyrroloquinoline Quinone | (PQQ) | Methoxatin
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is thought of as a non-vitamin growth factor, influencing metabolism and the expression of some genes. Although it’s not believed to be a helper molecule (i.e., vitamin cofactor) in any biochemical reactions, It does appear to be essential for healthy growth and function. PQQ is often categorized as a mitochondrial nutrient, supporting mitochondrial efficiency, so they are more capable of converting dietary fats and sugars into cellular energy. PQQ also plays roles in promoting healthy gut microbiome, immune system function, antioxidant defenses, and cognitive function. In the brain, it appears to be especially important in supporting healthy memory and cognition with aging. Some of the best food sources include soy, spinach, parsley, and kiwifruit.
PQQ sourcing is focused on ensuring it is non-GMO, gluten-free and vegan.
PQQ is dose-dependent (see Neurohacker Dosing Principles) in the range it’s commonly dosed (up to 20 mg a day). Since we use PQQ in more than one product (it’s in Qualia Mind and Eternus), and assume some people might take both, our goal was to make sure people taking both products would not be getting too much PQQ. PQQ is additive with other mitochondrial and antioxidant nutrients. This means lower doses of PQQ can be needed to support healthy function when it is combined with other nutrients, compared to when it is given as an isolated nutrient.
Mitochondrial function and efficiency
 W. Chowanadisai et al., J. Biol. Chem. 285, 142–152 (2010).
 E. Tchaparian et al., Biochem. J. 429, 515–526 (2010).
 K. Saihara, R. Kamikubo, K. Ikemoto, K. Uchida, M. Akagawa, Biochemistry. 56, 6615–6625 (2017).
 C. B. Harris et al., J. Nutr. Biochem. 24, 2076–2084 (2013).
 R. Tao et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 363, 257–262 (2007).
 M. Akagawa et al., Sci. Rep. 6, 26723 (2016).
 M. Akagawa, M. Nakano, K. Ikemoto, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 80, 13–22 (2016).
 Q. Zhang, M. Shen, M. Ding, D. Shen, F. Ding, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 252, 62–72 (2011).
 J.-J. Zhang, R.-F. Zhang, X.-K. Meng, Neurosci. Lett. 464, 165–169 (2009).
 E. Aizenman, K. A. Hartnett, C. Zhong, P. M. Gallop, P. A. Rosenberg, J. Neurosci. 12, 2362–2369 (1992).
 J. Kim, R. Harada, M. Kobayashi, N. Kobayashi, K. Sode, Mol. Neurodegener. 5, 20 (2010).
 K. Yamaguchi, A. Sasano, T. Urakami, T. Tsuji, K. Kondo, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 57, 1231–1233 (1993).
 Y. Itoh et al., Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 876, 319–325 (2016).
 M. Nakano, T. Yamamoto, H. Okamura, A. Tsuda, Y. Kowatari, Functional Foods in Health and Disease. 2, 307–324 (2012).
 J. E. Friedman et al., Hepatol Commun. 2, 313–328 (2018).
 X. Yin et al., J. Anim. Sci. (2018), doi:10.1093/jas/sky387.