Rhodiola rosea Root


Roseroot / Golden Root / Arctic Root


Supports brain function *

Supports resistance to mental fatigue *

Supports stress responses *

Supports neuroprotection *

Supports antioxidant defenses *

Supports cardioprotection*

Supports resistance to physical fatigue

Supports healthy aging *


Rhodiola rosea is an adaptogenic herb with a long history of folk use in Eastern Europe and Asia. Rhodiola rosea contains many biologically active substances, including flavonoids, terpernes, and phenolic compounds; rosavins (rosavin, rosin, and rosarian)  and salidroside are Rhodiola’s major bioactive compounds. As a potent adaptogen, Rhodiola helps to promote homeostasis, resistance to fatigue, and resistance to stress; it also helps to support cognitive performance in contexts of fatigue and stress.[1,2]


Brain function

Inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B [3,4]

Inhibits acetylcholinesterase [4,5]

Upregulates serotonin levels [6]

Supports neurogenesis [7,8]

Cognitive function

Supports resistance to mental fatigue [9–12]

Supports cognitive performance and attention in contexts of stress and fatigue [9–12]

Stress and mood

Supports stress responses [9–13]

Regulates the levels of stress hormones and other stress response mediators [9,14–17]

Regulates β-endorphin signaling [1,17]

Supports mood [18–20]


Protects from cognitive impairments [5,21]

Protects against neurotoxic agents [5,8,21–23]

Protects from ischemia/hypoxia-induced damage [24,25]

Protects from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity [26–28]

Regulates cellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis [24,26]

Antioxidant defenses

Protects from oxidative damage [8,26,29,30]

Downregulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels [5,8,22,23,31,32]

Upregulates the levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], glutathione reductase [GR]) [5,21,33,34]

Replenishes glutathione and thioredoxin levels [21,23]

Downregulates NADPH oxidase [5]


Protects cardiac tissue from ischemia/hypoxia-induced damage [35,36]

Protects cardiac tissue from oxidative damage [33]

Physical stamina

Supports resistance to physical fatigue [10]

Supports endurance performance [37]

Supports exercise-induced antioxidant defenses [34]

Healthy aging and longevity

Extends lifespan (Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans) [31,38,39]

Protects mitochondrial function [23,32,35]



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[3] D. van Diermen, A. Marston, J. Bravo, M. Reist, P.-A. Carrupt, K. Hostettmann, Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots, J. Ethnopharmacol. 122 (2009) 397–401.
[4] D . van Diermen, A. Marston, J. Bravo, M. Reist, P.A. Carrupt, K. Hostettmann, Inhibition of monoamine oxidase and acetylcholinesterase by Rhodiola rosea L, Planta Med. 74 (2008) PA202.
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[9] E.M. Olsson, B. von Schéele, A.G. Panossian, A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the standardised extract shr-5 of the roots of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of subjects with stress-related fatigue, Planta Med. 75 (2009) 105–112.
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[11] V. Darbinyan, A. Kteyan, A. Panossian, E. Gabrielian, G. Wikman, H. Wagner, Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue--a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty, Phytomedicine. 7 (2000) 365–371.
[12] V.A. Shevtsov, B.I. Zholus, V.I. Shervarly, V.B. Vol’skij, Y.P. Korovin, M.P. Khristich, N.A. Roslyakova, G. Wikman, A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work, Phytomedicine. 10 (2003) 95–105.
[13] D. Edwards, A. Heufelder, A. Zimmermann, Therapeutic effects and safety of Rhodiola rosea extract WS® 1375 in subjects with life-stress symptoms--results of an open-label study, Phytother. Res. 26 (2012) 1220–1225.
[14] A. Panossian, M. Hambardzumyan, A. Hovhanissyan, G. Wikman, The adaptogens rhodiola and schizandra modify the response to immobilization stress in rabbits by suppressing the increase of phosphorylated stress-activated protein kinase, nitric oxide and cortisol, Drug Target Insights. 2 (2007) 39–54.
[15] A. Panossian, G. Wikman, P. Kaur, A. Asea, Adaptogens stimulate neuropeptide y and hsp72 expression and release in neuroglia cells, Front. Neurosci. 6 (2012) 6.
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[17] I.B. Lishmanov, Z.V. Trifonova, A.N. Tsibin, L.V. Maslova, L.A. Dement’eva, [Plasma beta-endorphin and stress hormones in stress and adaptation], Biull. Eksp. Biol. Med. 103 (1987) 422–424.
[18] M. Cropley, A.P. Banks, J. Boyle, The Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. Extract on Anxiety, Stress, Cognition and Other Mood Symptoms, Phytother. Res. 29 (2015) 1934–1939.
[19] A. Bystritsky, L. Kerwin, J.D. Feusner, A pilot study of Rhodiola rosea (Rhodax) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), J. Altern. Complement. Med. 14 (2008) 175–180.
[20] V . Darbinyan, G. Aslanyan, E. Amroyan, E. Gabrielyan, C. Malmström, A. Panossian, Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression, Nord. J. Psychiatry. 61 (2007) 343–348.
[21] Z.-Q. Qu, Y. Zhou, Y.-S. Zeng, Y. Li, P. Chung, Pretreatment with Rhodiola rosea extract reduces cognitive impairment induced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in rats: implication of anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects, Biomed. Environ. Sci. 22 (2009) 318–326.
[22] S.I. Jang, H.O. Pae, B.M. Choi, G.S. Oh, S. Jeong, H.J. Lee, H.Y. Kim, K.J. Kang, Y.G. Yun, Y.C. Kim, H.T. Chung, Salidroside from Rhodiola sachalinensis protects neuronal PC12 cells against cytotoxicity induced by amyloid-beta, Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 25 (2003) 295–304.
[23] L. Zhang, H. Yu, X. Zhao, X. Lin, C. Tan, G. Cao, Z. Wang, Neuroprotective effects of salidroside against beta-amyloid-induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, Neurochem. Int. 57 (2010) 547–555.
[24] Zhang W.-S., Zhu L.-Q., Niu F.-L., Deng R.-C., Ma C.-X., [Protective effects of salidroside on injury induced by hypoxia/hypoglycemia in cultured neurons], Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 29 (2004) 459–462.
[25] Zou Y.-Q., Cai Z.-Y., Mao Y.-F., Li J.-B., Deng X.-M., [Effects of salidroside-pretreatment on neuroethology of rats after global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion], Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 7 (2009) 130–134.
[26] D.R. Palumbo, F. Occhiuto, F. Spadaro, C. Circosta, Rhodiola rosea extract protects human cortical neurons against glutamate and hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death through reduction in the accumulation of intracellular calcium, Phytother. Res. 26 (2012) 878–883.
[27] X. Chen, J. Liu, X. Gu, F. Ding, Salidroside attenuates glutamate-induced apoptotic cell death in primary cultured hippocampal neurons of rats, Brain Res. 1238 (2008) 189–198.
[28] L.-L. Cao, G.-H. Du, M.-W. Wang, The effect of salidroside on cell damage induced by glutamate and intracellular free calcium in PC12 cells, J. Asian Nat. Prod. Res. 8 (2006) 159–165.
[29] L. Cai, H. Wang, Q. Li, Y. Qian, W. Yao, Salidroside inhibits H2O2-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells by preventing cytochrome c release and inactivating of caspase cascade, Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. . 40 (2008) 796–802.
[30] X. Chen, Q. Zhang, Q. Cheng, F. Ding, Protective effect of salidroside against H2O2-induced cell apoptosis in primary culture of rat hippocampal neurons, Mol. Cell. Biochem. 332 (2009) 85–93.
[31] S.E. Schriner, A. Abrahamyan, A. Avanessian, I. Bussel, S. Maler, M. Gazarian, M.A. Holmbeck, M. Jafari, Decreased mitochondrial superoxide levels and enhanced protection against paraquat in Drosophila melanogaster supplemented with Rhodiola rosea, Free Radic. Res. 43 (2009) 836–843.
[32] S. Yu, M. Liu, X. Gu, F. Ding, Neuroprotective effects of salidroside in the PC12 cell model exposed to hypoglycemia and serum limitation, Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 28 (2008) 1067–1078.
[33] Y. Zhu, Y.-P. Shi, D. Wu, Y.-J. Ji, X. Wang, H.-L. Chen, S.-S. Wu, D.-J. Huang, W. Jiang, Salidroside protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in cardiac H9c2 cells via PI3K-Akt dependent pathway, DNA Cell Biol. 30 (2011) 809–819.
[34] J. Xu, Y. Li, Effects of salidroside on exhaustive exercise‑induced oxidative stress in rats, Mol. Med. Rep. 6 (2012) 1195–1198.
[35] H. Zhong, H. Xin, L.-X. Wu, Y.-Z. Zhu, Salidroside attenuates apoptosis in ischemic cardiomyocytes: a mechanism through a mitochondria-dependent pathway, J. Pharmacol. Sci. 114 (2010) 399–408.
[36] T. Wu, H. Zhou, Z. Jin, S. Bi, X. Yang, D. Yi, W. Liu, Cardioprotection of salidroside from ischemia/reperfusion injury by increasing N-acetylglucosamine linkage to cellular proteins, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 613 (2009) 93–99.
[37] K. De Bock, B.O. Eijnde, M. Ramaekers, P. Hespel, Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance, Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 14 (2004) 298–307.
[38] M. Jafari, J.S. Felgner, I.I. Bussel, T. Hutchili, B. Khodayari, M.R. Rose, C. Vince-Cruz, L.D. Mueller, Rhodiola: a promising anti-aging Chinese herb, Rejuvenation Res. 10 (2007) 587–602.
[39] F.A.C. Wiegant, S. Surinova, E. Ytsma, M. Langelaar-Makkinje, G. Wikman, J.A. Post, Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans, Biogerontology. 10 (2009) 27–42.