Roseroot / Golden Root / Arctic Root
Supports brain function *
Supports resistance to mental fatigue *
Supports stress responses *
Supports neuroprotection *
Supports antioxidant defenses *
Supports resistance to physical fatigue
Supports healthy aging *
Rhodiola rosea is an adaptogenic herb with a long history of folk use in Eastern Europe and Asia. Rhodiola rosea contains many biologically active substances, including flavonoids, terpernes, and phenolic compounds; rosavins (rosavin, rosin, and rosarian) and salidroside are Rhodiola’s major bioactive compounds. As a potent adaptogen, Rhodiola helps to promote homeostasis, resistance to fatigue, and resistance to stress; it also helps to support cognitive performance in contexts of fatigue and stress.[1,2]
Inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B [3,4]
Inhibits acetylcholinesterase [4,5]
Upregulates serotonin levels 
Supports neurogenesis [7,8]
Supports resistance to mental fatigue [9–12]
Supports cognitive performance and attention in contexts of stress and fatigue [9–12]
Stress and mood
Supports stress responses [9–13]
Regulates the levels of stress hormones and other stress response mediators [9,14–17]
Regulates β-endorphin signaling [1,17]
Supports mood [18–20]
Protects from cognitive impairments [5,21]
Protects against neurotoxic agents [5,8,21–23]
Protects from ischemia/hypoxia-induced damage [24,25]
Protects from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity [26–28]
Regulates cellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis [24,26]
Protects from oxidative damage [8,26,29,30]
Downregulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels [5,8,22,23,31,32]
Upregulates the levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], glutathione reductase [GR]) [5,21,33,34]
Replenishes glutathione and thioredoxin levels [21,23]
Downregulates NADPH oxidase 
Protects cardiac tissue from ischemia/hypoxia-induced damage [35,36]
Protects cardiac tissue from oxidative damage 
Supports resistance to physical fatigue 
Supports endurance performance 
Supports exercise-induced antioxidant defenses 
Healthy aging and longevity
Extends lifespan (Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans) [31,38,39]
Protects mitochondrial function [23,32,35]
 G.S. Kelly, Rhodiola rosea: a possible plant adaptogen, Altern. Med. Rev. 6 (2001) 293–302.
 A. Panossian, G. Wikman, J. Sarris, Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy, Phytomedicine. 17 (2010) 481–493.
 D. van Diermen, A. Marston, J. Bravo, M. Reist, P.-A. Carrupt, K. Hostettmann, Monoamine oxidase inhibition by Rhodiola rosea L. roots, J. Ethnopharmacol. 122 (2009) 397–401.
 D . van Diermen, A. Marston, J. Bravo, M. Reist, P.A. Carrupt, K. Hostettmann, Inhibition of monoamine oxidase and acetylcholinesterase by Rhodiola rosea L, Planta Med. 74 (2008) PA202.
 J. Zhang, Y.-F. Zhen, Pu-Bu-Ci-Ren, L.-G. Song, W.-N. Kong, T.-M. Shao, X. Li, X.-Q. Chai, Salidroside attenuates beta amyloid-induced cognitive deficits via modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in rat hippocampus, Behav. Brain Res. 244 (2013) 70–81.
 C. Mannucci, M. Navarra, E. Calzavara, A.P. Caputi, G. Calapai, Serotonin involvement in Rhodiola rosea attenuation of nicotine withdrawal signs in rats, Phytomedicine. 19 (2012) 1117–1124.
 Q.G. Chen, Y.S. Zeng, Z.Q. Qu, J.Y. Tang, Y.J. Qin, P. Chung, R. Wong, U. Hägg, The effects of Rhodiola rosea extract on 5-HT level, cell proliferation and quantity of neurons at cerebral hippocampus of depressive rats, Phytomedicine. 16 (2009) 830–838.
 Z.-Q. Qu, Y. Zhou, Y.-S. Zeng, Y.-K. Lin, Y. Li, Z.-Q. Zhong, W.Y. Chan, Protective effects of a Rhodiola crenulata extract and salidroside on hippocampal neurogenesis against streptozotocin-induced neural injury in the rat, PLoS One. 7 (2012) e29641.
 E.M. Olsson, B. von Schéele, A.G. Panossian, A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the standardised extract shr-5 of the roots of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of subjects with stress-related fatigue, Planta Med. 75 (2009) 105–112.
 A.A. Spasov, G.K. Wikman, V.B. Mandrikov, I.A. Mironova, V.V. Neumoin, A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen, Phytomedicine. 7 (2000) 85–89.
 V. Darbinyan, A. Kteyan, A. Panossian, E. Gabrielian, G. Wikman, H. Wagner, Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue--a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty, Phytomedicine. 7 (2000) 365–371.
 V.A. Shevtsov, B.I. Zholus, V.I. Shervarly, V.B. Vol’skij, Y.P. Korovin, M.P. Khristich, N.A. Roslyakova, G. Wikman, A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work, Phytomedicine. 10 (2003) 95–105.
 D. Edwards, A. Heufelder, A. Zimmermann, Therapeutic effects and safety of Rhodiola rosea extract WS® 1375 in subjects with life-stress symptoms--results of an open-label study, Phytother. Res. 26 (2012) 1220–1225.
 A. Panossian, M. Hambardzumyan, A. Hovhanissyan, G. Wikman, The adaptogens rhodiola and schizandra modify the response to immobilization stress in rabbits by suppressing the increase of phosphorylated stress-activated protein kinase, nitric oxide and cortisol, Drug Target Insights. 2 (2007) 39–54.
 A. Panossian, G. Wikman, P. Kaur, A. Asea, Adaptogens stimulate neuropeptide y and hsp72 expression and release in neuroglia cells, Front. Neurosci. 6 (2012) 6.
 A. Panossian, G. Wikman, Effects of Adaptogens on the Central Nervous System and the Molecular Mechanisms Associated with Their Stress-Protective Activity, Pharmaceuticals . 3 (2010) 188–224.
 I.B. Lishmanov, Z.V. Trifonova, A.N. Tsibin, L.V. Maslova, L.A. Dement’eva, [Plasma beta-endorphin and stress hormones in stress and adaptation], Biull. Eksp. Biol. Med. 103 (1987) 422–424.
 M. Cropley, A.P. Banks, J. Boyle, The Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. Extract on Anxiety, Stress, Cognition and Other Mood Symptoms, Phytother. Res. 29 (2015) 1934–1939.
 A. Bystritsky, L. Kerwin, J.D. Feusner, A pilot study of Rhodiola rosea (Rhodax) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), J. Altern. Complement. Med. 14 (2008) 175–180.
 V . Darbinyan, G. Aslanyan, E. Amroyan, E. Gabrielyan, C. Malmström, A. Panossian, Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression, Nord. J. Psychiatry. 61 (2007) 343–348.
 Z.-Q. Qu, Y. Zhou, Y.-S. Zeng, Y. Li, P. Chung, Pretreatment with Rhodiola rosea extract reduces cognitive impairment induced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in rats: implication of anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects, Biomed. Environ. Sci. 22 (2009) 318–326.
 S.I. Jang, H.O. Pae, B.M. Choi, G.S. Oh, S. Jeong, H.J. Lee, H.Y. Kim, K.J. Kang, Y.G. Yun, Y.C. Kim, H.T. Chung, Salidroside from Rhodiola sachalinensis protects neuronal PC12 cells against cytotoxicity induced by amyloid-beta, Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 25 (2003) 295–304.
 L. Zhang, H. Yu, X. Zhao, X. Lin, C. Tan, G. Cao, Z. Wang, Neuroprotective effects of salidroside against beta-amyloid-induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, Neurochem. Int. 57 (2010) 547–555.
 Zhang W.-S., Zhu L.-Q., Niu F.-L., Deng R.-C., Ma C.-X., [Protective effects of salidroside on injury induced by hypoxia/hypoglycemia in cultured neurons], Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 29 (2004) 459–462.
 Zou Y.-Q., Cai Z.-Y., Mao Y.-F., Li J.-B., Deng X.-M., [Effects of salidroside-pretreatment on neuroethology of rats after global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion], Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 7 (2009) 130–134.
 D.R. Palumbo, F. Occhiuto, F. Spadaro, C. Circosta, Rhodiola rosea extract protects human cortical neurons against glutamate and hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death through reduction in the accumulation of intracellular calcium, Phytother. Res. 26 (2012) 878–883.
 X. Chen, J. Liu, X. Gu, F. Ding, Salidroside attenuates glutamate-induced apoptotic cell death in primary cultured hippocampal neurons of rats, Brain Res. 1238 (2008) 189–198.
 L.-L. Cao, G.-H. Du, M.-W. Wang, The effect of salidroside on cell damage induced by glutamate and intracellular free calcium in PC12 cells, J. Asian Nat. Prod. Res. 8 (2006) 159–165.
 L. Cai, H. Wang, Q. Li, Y. Qian, W. Yao, Salidroside inhibits H2O2-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells by preventing cytochrome c release and inactivating of caspase cascade, Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. . 40 (2008) 796–802.
 X. Chen, Q. Zhang, Q. Cheng, F. Ding, Protective effect of salidroside against H2O2-induced cell apoptosis in primary culture of rat hippocampal neurons, Mol. Cell. Biochem. 332 (2009) 85–93.
 S.E. Schriner, A. Abrahamyan, A. Avanessian, I. Bussel, S. Maler, M. Gazarian, M.A. Holmbeck, M. Jafari, Decreased mitochondrial superoxide levels and enhanced protection against paraquat in Drosophila melanogaster supplemented with Rhodiola rosea, Free Radic. Res. 43 (2009) 836–843.
 S. Yu, M. Liu, X. Gu, F. Ding, Neuroprotective effects of salidroside in the PC12 cell model exposed to hypoglycemia and serum limitation, Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 28 (2008) 1067–1078.
 Y. Zhu, Y.-P. Shi, D. Wu, Y.-J. Ji, X. Wang, H.-L. Chen, S.-S. Wu, D.-J. Huang, W. Jiang, Salidroside protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in cardiac H9c2 cells via PI3K-Akt dependent pathway, DNA Cell Biol. 30 (2011) 809–819.
 J. Xu, Y. Li, Effects of salidroside on exhaustive exercise‑induced oxidative stress in rats, Mol. Med. Rep. 6 (2012) 1195–1198.
 H. Zhong, H. Xin, L.-X. Wu, Y.-Z. Zhu, Salidroside attenuates apoptosis in ischemic cardiomyocytes: a mechanism through a mitochondria-dependent pathway, J. Pharmacol. Sci. 114 (2010) 399–408.
 T. Wu, H. Zhou, Z. Jin, S. Bi, X. Yang, D. Yi, W. Liu, Cardioprotection of salidroside from ischemia/reperfusion injury by increasing N-acetylglucosamine linkage to cellular proteins, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 613 (2009) 93–99.
 K. De Bock, B.O. Eijnde, M. Ramaekers, P. Hespel, Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance, Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 14 (2004) 298–307.
 M. Jafari, J.S. Felgner, I.I. Bussel, T. Hutchili, B. Khodayari, M.R. Rose, C. Vince-Cruz, L.D. Mueller, Rhodiola: a promising anti-aging Chinese herb, Rejuvenation Res. 10 (2007) 587–602.
 F.A.C. Wiegant, S. Surinova, E. Ytsma, M. Langelaar-Makkinje, G. Wikman, J.A. Post, Plant adaptogens increase lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans, Biogerontology. 10 (2009) 27–42.