Quercetin

COMMON NAME

Quercetin | Sophoretin

TOP BENEFITS OF QUERCETIN

Supports brain function*

Supports antioxidant defenses*

Supports cellular health*

WHAT IS QUERCETIN?

Quercetin is a yellow plant pigment. Its name is derived from the Latin work for oak forest—quercetum—because it was originally identified in oaks. Quercetin is a flavonol, which is one of the polyphenol categories. Polyphenols play important roles in the plant kingdom. One of these roles is protecting plants from environmental stress such as pests and UV irradiation from the sun. Because of this role, they tend to concentrate in parts of the plant that come into more contact with the outside world. Red onions are one of the better food sources of quercetin. But the quercetin isn’t uniformly spread through red onions; it concentrates in the outer skins (which are usually thrown away when onions are peeled before use) and the part closest to the root. Capers may be the best dietary source of quercetin. 

NEUROHACKER’S QUERCETIN SOURCING

Quercetin is supplemented as quercetin dihydrate because this is a stable form of the ingredient suitable.

Quercetin is sourced from the bud of Sophora japonica.

Quercetin is Non-GMO and Vegan.

QUERCETIN DOSING PRINCIPLES AND RATIONALE

The amount of quercetin used in a formula will vary significantly depending on its role in that particular formula. Many flavonoid molecules are part of plants’ protective responses to mild environmental stress. Because of this, we don’t think of flavonols like quercetin as being “more is better” ingredients. Instead we think it’s better to use them following hormetic dosing principles (see Neurohacker Dosing Principles). Quercetin is an interesting ingredient when it comes to dosing, because the oral dose commonly used in animal research is high (the same is true in many human studies), but healthspan has been extended in mice by a dose 80- to 400 times lower [1]. Despite the common practice of using high amounts of quercetin in dietary supplements, for long-term use, very low amounts may possibly be a better choice. There are several factors we consider for determining the dosing of quercetin in a formula. Since we consider it hormetic, we might use low doses in a formulation intended to be taken most days, but much higher doses for a formulation which would only be taken intermittently for a few days at a time. We also consider timing. We are more comfortable with higher amounts of quercetin early in the day but lower amounts in the evening, because the impact of taking high doses of quercetin at night on sleep in humans has not been studied. With quercetin, like all of our ingredients, we also consider its role in a formula. Quercetin has influenced the function of many enzymes and processes in preclinical research. It’s also been the focus of human studies. If its role in a formula is to solely support enzymes/processes, our dose will be low. If the role is based on a structure or function benefit from a human study, our dose is likely to be higher. The last thing we consider is what else is in the formula. It’s useful to think of polyphenols like quercetin as being somewhat akin to recommendations to eat a variety of fruits and vegetables. It's prudent to consume a variety of polyphenol compounds (rather than just one in very high amounts) because they tend to have complementary interactions, often supporting the absorption and use of other polyphenols. So, one of the factors we consider when dosing quercetin is the amount of other polyphenols it will be combined with in a formula.

QUERCETIN KEY MECHANISMS

Brain function

Supports learning and memory [2–9]

Supports motor activity [5,7,10]

Supports non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep [11]

Supports brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) [4,9,12–16]

Supports tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activity [7]

Supports serotonin synthesis/levels [7]

Downregulates MAO-A activity [7,17,18]

Downregulates acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity [8,19,20]

Supports tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity [7]

Supports dopamine synthesis [7]

Supports noradrenaline synthesis [7]

Supports hippocampal SIRT1 levels [7]

Supports brain insulin signaling [21]

Supports long-term potentiation [22]

Supports neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation [9]

Supports neurogenesis [9]

Supports ectonucleotidase activity [20,23–25]

Downregulates adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity [20,24]

Supports neuroprotective functions [10,19,20,22,26–30]

Supports free radical scavenging [4,5,8,19,20,27,31]

Supports brain antioxidant defenses [4–6,8,19,27]

Supports Nrf2 signaling [6,28]

Supports phase II detox enzymes [6,28]

Supports brain mitochondrial function [3,28]

Supports neural AMPK signaling [3,26,28]

Stress

Supports healthy behavioral and physiological responses to stress [5,8,12,16,21,30–35]

Gut microbiota

Supports the composition of the gut microbiota [14,36–41]

Supports gut microbial metabolism [37]

Supports gut-immune communication [36,38]

Healthy aging and longevity

Supports stem cell proliferation [9,42–44]

Supports stem cell differentiation [43–45]

Attenuates cellular senescence [42,46]

Immune system

Supports adaptive immunity [47]

Supports immune system communication [48]

Joints and muscle

Supports joint health [48]

Supports muscle recovery and contraction [49]

Synergies

With palmitoylethanolamide for joint health [50]

With glucosamine and chondroitin for joint health [51]

With Mangifera indica leaf extract for ergogenic support [52]


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